As indicated in the preface to the first edition of The Historical Geography of the Holy Land,this Atlas was originally planned by Dr. Bartholomew and myself in 1894. But other literary works and the duties of my present office have prevented me from completing my share in it till now. The long delay has its advantages. We have been enabled to enlarge our first scheme, and the intervening twenty-one years of research and debate in both the history and the geography of Syria have not only added to but sifted the materials at our disposal.
The contents of an adequate Historical Atlas of any land must comprise at least the following five: -
1. Some representation of the world to which the land belongs. This should include the general features of that world, physical and political, and in particular should exhibit the kingdoms and empires between which the land was placed and by which its history and culture have been most deeply influenced, along with the delineation of the main lines of its traffic with these. All this we have endeavoured to give, for the era of Israel's history, in Part I of the Atlas, Maps 1-8, and in Part II, Map 9; and for the Christian era in Part IV, Maps 51-53A, 58 and 58A.
2. The general features of the physical and economic geography of the land itself, as well as the detailed representation on a large scale of its various provinces - including natural features, towns and villages, with their names at various periods, and the lines of communication between them. In this Atlas these are provided in Part II by the general Maps 10-14, and by the large- scale map of four miles to the inch, in eight sections, Maps 15-30.
3. A succession of maps of the political geography of the land, exhibiting its divisions, frontiers, and historical sites at various periods. For the era of the history of Israel, so frequently disturbed not only through the conquest of the land or of portions of it by foreign powers with the consequent alterations in its division and administration, but by the disruption of the Israelite kingdom itself and the oscillation of the frontier between the two resultant States, by Israel's revolutions against her oppressors, as well as by the rise and fall of petty " tyrants " and free cities within and around her proper territories, we have felt that not fewer than sixteen maps are necessary (Nos. 31-46), which, with plans of Jerusalem at successive periods (Nos. 47-50), compose Part III of the Atlas. For the longer but less varied Christian Era fewer maps suffice, and these are given in Part IV by Maps 54, 57, 59 and 60, on Palestine in the Fourth Century, at the time of the Crusades, and at the present day. We regret that we could not find room for maps to show the growth of the Roman power in Syria, including the addition of new provinces and the alteration of old ones.
4. Some illustrations of the conceptions of the land and of the world to which it belongs, prevalent at former periods of its history. Such will be found in Maps 6, "The World and its Races according to the Old Testament"; 54, "Palestine according to Eusebius"; 55 and 56, "Palestine after the Peutinger Tables," and "after Marinus Sanutus" - in fact, all for which we could find room.
5. A series of "Notes to the Maps," including a list of the ancient, or contemporary, and the modern, authorities for each; and, in the case of the most of the historical maps, statements of the principal events in the periods to which they refer, with some explanations or arguments for the frontiers, lines of traffic, and historical sites which are delineated upon them. I have drawn up these notes so as to present an outline of the history of Syria and especially of Israel from the earliest times to the reign of the last Jewish monarch, Agrippa II. For Map 51, a summary of St. Paul's apostolic journeys is given, and for Maps 57 and 58 a chronological table of the Crusades.
The authorities cited in the notes form a sufficient guide for the student to 'the sources of all materials necessary for understanding the history and geography of each period. To these authorities I add here others dealing, more or less, with the whole subject of the sacred geography, none of which, however, covers so long a range of the history as this Atlas, or represents the land on so large a scale as Dr. Bartholomew's maps of four miles to an inch. I have consulted and found useful the following Atlases: - Dr. Theodor Menke's Bibel Atlas, 1868, and subsequent editions; Dr. Wilhelm Sieglin's Atlas Antiquus (Gotha: J. Perthes, 1893 f.) ; the second edition of Dr. R. de Riess' Atlas Scripture Sacrae by Professor K. Rueckert (Freiburg i. Br., 1906); and, above all, Professor H. Guthe's Bibel Atlas in 20 Haupt- und 28 Nebenkarten (Leipzig: H. Wagner und E. Debes, 1911), which combines the artistic powers of the cartographers who publish it with the experience and judgment of the eminent Biblical geographer and historian, its editor, as well as the contributions of the geographical expert, Dr. Hans Fischer. Dr. Guthe's Atlas does not pursue the historical geography of Palestine beyond the time of St. Paul, except for a map of Palestine at the present day. Though it came into my hands when the most of the work for our Atlas was finished, and though I differ from many of the editor's conclusions, I have reason to be grateful for the materials which it offers to the historian and cartographer of the Holy Land. One of the most complete and compact aids to the student is The Holy Land in Geography and History, 2 vols., illustrated by 145 maps and plans, small but admirably clear and vivid, by Townsend MacCoun, A.M. (New York: Revell Co., N.D.). Of course, Reland's Palaestina (Utrecht, 1714), Dr. Edward Robinson's
Biblical Researches in Palestine, etc. (Lond., 1841) and Later Biblical Researches (1856), Dean
Stanley's Sinai and Palestine (1856), Dr. W. M. Thomson's The Land and the Book (1859), Dr.
M. V. Guerin's Description de la Palestine (1868), Colonel Conder's Tent Work in Palestine (1878),
and Dr. F. Buhl's Geographie des Alten Palastina (Freiburg i. B., 1896) are still indispensable books on the subject. Among recent works the student will find useful, in different directions, The
Development of Palestine Exploration, by F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. (1906), Canaan d'apres l' Exploration
Recente, by Pere H. Vincent (1907), and Palestine and its Transformation, by Ellsworth Huntington (1911). But the foundations of all the geography of the Holy Land are the Maps and Memoirs of the Palestine Exploration Fund, detailed in the notes on Maps 15-30.
In the task of reproducing the physical and political geography of Palestine in so many periods, from which very different amounts of historical and geographical material have come down to us, it is obvious that it is impossible to maintain throughout the same degree of accuracy. The coastlines of Western Asia have not been constant. Tyre, which is now joined to the mainland, was in ancient times an island, and it is well known that the heads of the Gulf of Suez and of the Persian Gulf were differently formed from what they are today. Political frontiers cannot be determined except approximately, especially where there were no distinct natural lines of demarcation. In such circumstances they oscillated from reign to reign, and even probably from year to year, as in the case of the border between Northern Israel and Judah, or in the cases of the suburban territories of the Decapolis and other free cities of Syria. It would be an even more precarious task to attempt to draw the exact frontiers of the Tribes of Israel (see Map 32). On the other hand, it is extremely probable that so strong a natural frontier in Moab as the valley of the Arnon was almost constantly a political frontier as well; and the historical evidence is in agreement with this conclusion.
The identification of ancient with modern place-names has greatly advanced towards certainty, since Robinson, with equal prudence and daring, showed us the way. For a quarter of a century this question has been the subject of prolonged and thorough discussion, the relative monographs having been innumerable. We have emerged from a period of indiscriminate identification into one of careful criticism of the identifications produced. We have therefore firmer grounds of confidence than were possible last century. Nevertheless that confidence must be still limited. Syria is a region in which place-names have always had a tendency to drift, and in which their tradition has passed through several languages. Therefore a number of the identifications presented on the maps of this Atlas are followed by marks of interrogation. The value of these queries is very various. In some cases they represent a great amount of probability, though short of certainty. In others they mean only that the identifications to which they are attached, though supported by some degree of evidence, are still, in my opinion, far from being proved.
GEORGE ADAM SMITH.
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN, March, 1915.
Part I. - BIBLE LANDS
1. THE SEMITIC WORLD. Map 034
2. WESTERN ASIA BEFORE 1400 B.C.Map 037
5. WESTERN ASIA IN THE FOURTH TO SECOND CENTURIES B.C. Map 041
6. THE WORLD AND ITS RACES ACCORDING TO THE OLD TESTAMENT. Map 042
7-8. EGYPT AND SINAI PENINSULA. Map 043
Part II. - GENERAL MAPS OF PALESTINE.
9. ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES TO PALESTINE. Map 045
10. ECONOMIC MAP OF MODERN PALESTINE. Map 046
11-12. GENERAL OROGRAPHICAL MAP OF PALESTINE WITH ROADS AND COMMUNICATIONS. Map 047
13. GEOLOGY OF PALESTINE. Map 049
14. VEGETATION OF PALESTINE. Map 050
Palestine on scale of inch to the mile in Sections.
15-16. SECTION I. PHOENICIA AND LEBANON. Map 052
17-18. SECTION II. ANTI-LEBANON AND DAMASCUS. Map 056
19-20. SECTION III. GALILEE. Map 059
21-22. SECTION IV. GILEAD AND HAURAN. Map 062
23-24. SECTION V. SAMARIA AND JUDEA. Map 065
25-26. SECTION VI. SOUTH GILEAD AND AMMON. Map 068
27-28. SECTION VII. BEERSHEBA AND THE NEGEB. Map 071
29-30. SECTION VIII. MOAB AND DEAD SEA. Map 075
Part III. - PALESTINE AT PARTICULAR PERIODS IN HISTORY OF ISRAEL
31. PALESTINE BEFORE THE COMING OF ISRAEL.Map 076
32. PERIOD OF ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT AND OF THE JUDGES. Map 077
33. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF SAUL. Map 078
34. PALESTINE UNDER DAVID AND SOLOMON. Map 079
35. PALESTINE IN THE TIMES OF ELIJAH AND ELISHA. Map 080
36. PALESTINE FROM 720 B.C. TO EXILE OF JUDAH. Map 081
37. PALESTINE UNDER THE PERSIANS. Map 082
38. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF THE MACCABEES. Map 083
39. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF ALEXANDER JANNAEUS AND QUEEN ALEXANDRA Map 084
40. PALESTINE AFTER POMPEY'S REARRANGEMENT. Map 085
41. PALESTINE UNDER MARK ANTONY. Map 086
42. PALESTINE UNDER HEROD THE GREAT. Map 087
43. PALESTINE UNDER HEROD'S WILL AND IN THE TIME OF CHRIST. Map 088
44. PALESTINE IN TIME OF AGRIPPA I. Map 089
45. PALESTINE UNDER ROMAN PROCURATORS.Map 090
46. PALESTINE IN TIME OF AGRIPPA II. Map 091
49-50. PLAN OF MODERN JERUSALEM. Map 096
Part IV. - THE CHRISTIAN ERA.
51. EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN TO ILLUSTRATE ST. PAUL'S TRAVELS. Map 099
52. ASIA MINOR SHOWING POSITIONS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES. Map 100
53. THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST UNDER TRAJAN.Map 101A
53a. THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST UNDER CONSTANTINE. Map 101B
54. PALESTINE IN THE FOURTH CENTURY, ACCORDING TO EUSEBIUS AND JEROME. Map 102
55. PALESTINE AFTER THE PEUTINGER TABLES.Map 103
56. PALESTINE AFTER MARINUS SANUTUS. Map 104
57. SYRIA AND PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES. Map 105
58. EUROPE IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES. Map 106
58a. THE EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY.Map 106B
59. PRESENT POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF PALESTINE. (1910) Map 107
60. CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN PALESTINE.Map 108
NOTES TO MAPS,WITH EXPLANATORY BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. THE SEMITIC WORLD
AUTHORITIES - W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites (Edin., 1889), Lect. I; D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East
(1902); H. Winckler, Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T. (3rd ed., Berl., 1903), pp. 1-112; with other
authorities for Map 2; G. Rawlinson, Hist. of Phoenicia, with map of the Phoenician Colonies (1889).
Cp. G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., ch. i., and, for the Semitic characteristics, Early Poetry of Israel (London,
1912), Lect. II.
WHETHER Arabia was the cradle of the Semitic race—the race to which Israel belonged (see further on, Map 6)—is uncertain; but that peninsula and the deserts obtruding from it upon Syria have been from time immemorial their breeding ground and proper home. Thence they spread, first into Mesopotamia (succeeding there before 4000 (?) B.C. the old Sumerian civilisation), Syria, and the Nile Valley; but the last was never theirs in the full sense in which the other two belonged to and were pervaded by them. Their ancient and more particular world lay within the natural boundaries of the Red Sea, the Levant, Mt. Taurus, the mountains of Armenia and Turkistan, the Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean. The mountains were the most formidable barriers. It is very doubtful how far, or for how long, Assyrian arms or influence broke across the Taurus (for instances, see Winckler, p. 77), or how far Asia Minor was penetrated by Aramaean influences. In ancient times Asia Minor and Armenia were Hittite, this influence penetrating S. to the Euphrates and Lebanon (see Map 2), but by the eighth century they were invaded by Indo- European peoples: Medes, Kimmerians, Kelts. Even Islam's conquest of Asia Minor was due not to Arabs but to Turks. Westward the Semitic advance followed two other directions: (a) through the Phoenicians, by the islands of the Mediterranean and the S. coast of Asia Minor (with extensions into the Aegean and even the Black Sea) to Greece, S. Italy, Sicily, Tunis, Morocco, and Spain; (b) through the Arabs, under Islam from Egypt along the N. coast of Africa to Spain. These were the limits of the later and wider Semitic world.
Kaphtor, Elissa, and Tharshish appear on the map in accordance with the older views; Kaphtor is more probably Crete than either the Egyptian Delta or the S. coast of Asia Minor (see H.G.H.L., 135, 170 f., 198); for Elisha=Alasia or Cyprus, and Tharshish=Tarsus, see Ramsay, Expositor, 1906, 366 ff. In Palestine there should be added to the Phoenician colonies Laish, afterwards Dan, at the sources of Jordan (Jud. xviii. 27 ff.) and Dor, S. of Carmel (Scylax, Periplus, § 104), both Sidonian; and there was a Tyrian colony in Memphis (Herod., ii. 112), probably by favour of Pharaoh Neco.
2. WESTERN ASIA BEFORE 1400 B.C.
AUTHORITIES (a) for the Babylonian names - H. Winckler, Die Thontafeln von Tell-el-Amarna (Berlin, 1896),Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T., 3rd ed. (with map, Berlin, 1903), pp. 176-184, &c.; L. W. King, " Assyria " and " Babylonia " inKB. (1899) ; Hommel, Geogr. u. Gesch. d. alten Orients, i. (Munich, 1904), and " Assyria " and " Babylonia " in Hastings' D.B.: (b) for the Egyptian names—W. M.
Asien u. Europa, nach altagypt. Denkmalern (Leipzig, 1893); H. G. Tomkins, Records of the Past, new series, v. 25 if.; Budge, Hist. of Egypt (Lond., 1902), iv. ; cp. also G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, ii. ch. i., with Plate XI: (c) for the Hittites, J. Garstang, The Land of the Hittites (Lond., 1910).
This map represents Egyptian supremacy over Syria for four centuries, from about 1600 B.C. The limit of Egyptian conquest was the Euphrates, and the line indicated thence to the south end of the Taurus. It was reached by Thutmosis III, c. 1500, and his successor, Amenhotep II, and their influence extended to Armenia. On the Tell-el-Amarna tablets, Amenhotep IV is recognised by the kings north of the Euphrates as lord, at least, of Palestine. Their kingdoms were three: Babylonia, under a Kassite dynasty; Assyria (Ashshur), her young rival, already strong enough to strike for independence; and Mitanni, of Hittite origin, on Lne left of the Euphrates, north of the Habur, with probably power on the right of that river as well. Across the Taurus were the Khatti (so the Babylonians called them - Egyptian Kheta, Hebrew Hittite) pushing down, c. 1400, on Mitanni, and ultimately reaching the Lebanons by the time of Ramses III of Egypt. A monument of Sety I, of the same dynasty, was found in 1901 by G. A. Smith at Tell-esh-Shihab, thirty miles east of the Lake of Galilee, and Ashteroth-Kanaim and Edrei (Otra`a) are given among the conquests of Thutmosis III. (See further Notes to Map 31.)
Suri was the Babylonian name for Asia Minor, as far at least as the Halys, but appears to have also crossed the Euphrates southward. It may be the origin of the Greek Syria. The Egyptian Naharin is the Biblical Aram-Naharaim.
Winckler has argued for the existence of an Arab kingdom, Muni or Musur, a name identical with the Semitic name for Egypt, and has been followed by some scholars both in Germany and in this country (notably Cheyne). It is not probable that two independent States should have confronted each other with the same name; and we must keep in mind that Egypt under the name Musr or Misr (Heb. Misraim) was not confined to Africa, but included the neighbouring fringe of Asia up to a line from the Gulf of ‘Akaba to Raphia, S. of Gaza, the region claimed by Winckler for his Arab Muni. The tribes in it, whether at any given time independent of Egypt or not, would bear her name (see Jerus., ii. 155 ff.). On the map, therefore, Musri stands with a mark of interrogation.
3-4. EMPIRES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
For the Egyptian Empire compare letterpress to Maps 2, 7, 8, 31; for the Babylonian, that to 1, 2; for the
Persian, that to 37; for the Greek, that to 5, 38, 39; and for the Roman, that to 40-46 and 51-55.
5. WESTERN ASIA IN THE FOURTH TO THE SECOND CENTURIES B.C.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: The historians of Alexander the Great's expedition; parts of Diodorus Siculus, Polybius, and Appian ; the Books of the Maccabees; Josephus, xi Antt., viii.-xii. 5; Reinach, Textes d'Auteurs Grecs et Romains relatifs an Judaisme (1895). Modern: Mahaffy,C-reek Life from Alexander, etc. (1887); Greek World under Roman Sway (1890); Empire of Ptolemies (1895); Holscher, Pal. in der Pers. u. Hellenistischen Zeit (1903); Schlatter, Gesch. Israels von Alex. dem Gr., etc. (2nd ed., 1906); E. Bevan, The House of Seleucus ; G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, ii. ch. xv. ff.
The principal dates are these: 333, Alexander crosses the Hellespont, defeats the Persians on the Granicus, and overthrows Darius at Issus; 332, destroys Tyre; 331, founds Alexandria, and again overthrows Darius at Arbela, and reaches Babylon and Persepolis; 326, crosses the Indus; 325, returns to Persia; and 323, dies at Babylon. In 323 his Eastern Empire was divided among Perdiccas at Babylon, Antigonus in "Asia," and Ptolemy, son of Lagus, in Egypt. Palestine was the subject of a varying contest between the Seleucids and Ptolemies from 321 to 198, when Antiochus III, the Great, defeated Ptolemy V at Paneion, took Sidon and Samaria, and was welcomed by the Jews to Jerusalem. (See also Map 4.)
6. THE WORLD AND ITS RACES ACCORDING TO THE OLD TESTAMENT
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: Gen. x., xxii. 20-24, xxv. 12-18; with 1 Chron. i. 4-23 (a repetition of the table in Gen. x., with textual variations and some omissions); Jer. li. 27 f.; Ezek. xxvii., xxxviii. 1-13 xxxix. 1, 6, and other texts in the Prophets, Daniel, and Esther; also references to several of the peoples mentioned in these Scriptures in the Assyrian inscriptions of Tiglath Pileser I, Shalmaneser II, Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal; cp. other references in Herodotus. Modern: Commentaries on Genesis, especially A. Dillmann's (6th ed., Leipzig, 1892); H. Gunkel's (2nd ed., Gott., 1902); J. Skinner's, Intern. Crit. Comm. (Edin., 1910); H. E. Ryle's, Camb. Bible for Schools (1914); Wellhausen,Comp. des Hexateuch (Berlin, 1835); Fried. Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies? (Leipzig, 1881); W. M. Muller, Asien u. Europa nach altagyptischen Denkmalern (Leipzig, 1893); H. Winckler, in Die Keilinschriften u. clas A.T. (3rd ed., 1903); cp. Fr. Brown, art. "Geography," in vol. ii. of E.B. (1901), with maps illustrating the extent of Hebrew geography at four different periods.
The table of peoples and races in Gen. x. is a compilation from two (Wellhausen, Comp., 6 ff.; Skinner, Gen., 188), possibly from three (Gunkel, 74 f.), sources of different dates. The two which are clear, as well from their different styles as from the double introduction to Shem (verses 21, 22) and the discrepancies as to Havilah and Sheba (Saba), have been discriminated as follows :
(a) The Jahwist (Yahwist) Document, known as J, of date probably about 800 B.C.: verses 1b(?), 8-12, 13 f., 15-19, 21, 25-30; with which must be taken Gen. xxii. 20-24.
(b) The Priestly Document, known as P, of the sixth or fifth century B.C., but, like the other, drawn, from far earlier elements: verses la, 2-5, 6 f., 20, 22 f., 31, 32; with which must be taken Gen. xxv. 12-18, and the references to peoples in Jeremiah, Ezekiel, etc.
For other details of this analysis, see Wellhausen and Skinner, and for the further analysis of J, see Gunkel, as above.
These lists comprise the peoples of the world known to Israel (with the exceptions of some of their neighbours, the mention of whom comes naturally later) at the periods of the documents to which they belong. P's list, as might be expected, has a far wider horizon than that of the earlier J. For while J extends only from the Hittites (in Syria) and Phoenicians on the N. to Egypt and S. Arabia on the S., and from Crete on the W. to Babylonia on the E., P adds Asia Minor, Armenia, Media, Elam, Nubia, and the Mediterranean coasts and islands as far as the Straits of Gibraltar.
Both tables arrange the peoples in three divisions, and derive them from the same three sons of Noah. The principle of the arrangement is less clear than the exceptions which both tables exhibit to every possible principle. In the ancient world derivation from a common ancestor covered more than blood relationship. It included political relations, and may sometimes have been suggested merely by neighbourhood. We cannot preclude the possibility of genuine traditions of racial affinity as affecting the classification; but, on the other hand, the arrangement of both tables undoubtedly crosses and cuts through affinities both in language and blood. That J calls Heth (Hittite) the son of Canaan and younger brother of Sidon can be justified by community neither of language nor of culture nor of blood, but must reflect some political tradition, or more probably a geographical fact. Most of the sons of Shem in P, and all in J, had the same group of languages, hence now called Shemitic or Semitic; but Elam, assigned to Shem by P, did not, while Canaan and Kush, assigned to Ham by P, were Semitic both by blood and language. Again, many of what we call the Indo-European peoples are included among the sons of Japhet, but so is Cyprus=Chittim, the population of which was at least as Phoenician (Semitic) as anything else.
On the whole, a geographical principle appears most to justify the arrangement, and this is especially true of P. Japhet covers the northern peoples, Ham the southern, Shem a middle zone, but only to the E. The exception to this is Canaan, and it is probably a reflection either of political conditions in the compiler's own time, or of an earlier date, when we know that the coast of Palestine was subject to Egypt. (See Map 2.) Lud (see below) is capable of another explanation than that it refers to the Lydians in Asia Minor.
For the individual names the student is referred to the commentaries, especially Skinner's and Ryle's, which give the latest data and theories. But the following need notes here: Magog is very uncertain - it covers probably a number of the northern peoples, separately mentioned;Arphaksad is perhaps a textual corruption for Arphah, or Arpak, and Kesed (=Chaldaea), Dodanim should be Rodanim as in the LXX and Sam. texts, and in 1 Chron. i. 7; Lud can hardly be the Lydians of Asia Minor, much more probably is it the name of a people above Mash, i.e. N. of Mt. Masius ; Javan (Yawan) is without doubt the Greek IaFwn, and in the O.T. the name for the Greeks, Assyr. Yavanu; with Havilah (Hawilah) cp. Ha'il in Central Arabia.
7 & 8. EGYPT AND SINAI PENINSULA
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: The relevant parts of the Old Testament and the Greek geographers, with C. Miller's Tabulce in Geographos Graecos Minores (Paris, Firmin-Didot, 1882), especially v., vi., xi. Modern: E. Robinson, Biblical Researches, i. ; E. H. Palmer, The Desert of the Exodus (Camb., 1871); H. Clay Trumbull, Kadesh-Barnea (New York, 1884); W. M. Miller, Asien und Europa; A. Musil, Arabia Petrcea, ii. Edom (with maps); Enc. Bibl., artt. "Egypt," "Negeb," and "Trade and Commerce," §§ 28-33; Pal. Expl. Fund new Map of "The Desert of the Wanderings." The Editors desire to express their obligation to Mr. Francis L. Griffith for advice as to the spelling of some of the ancient Egyptian names.
Corrections: - G 5, for 'Ain Hawarah, read 'Ain Hawarah.
L 4, for Ma' Radjan (Musil's transliteration) read Ma' Ghadyan.
9. ANCIENT TRADE ROUTES TO PALESTINE
AUTHORITIES - Ancient (including those on the nature and objects of ancient trade with Palestine): Old Testament, Gen. x. (with related passages cited in notes to Map 6), passages in Gen. on the journeys of the Patriarchs, passages in Exod., Num., and Deut. on the journeys of the Israelites, passages in 1 Kings on the foreign trade of Solomon and other kings, Ezek. xxvii., etc. ; New Testament, the Bk. of Acts; cp. passages in Josephus, Ana. and Wars, on the journeys of Herod and others ; inscriptions of Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian kings referring to trade ; Aramaean and Himyaritic inscriptions in the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum ; various Greek Periploi, or coasting-voyages in the Geographi Groeci, Minores, ed. by C. Miller (Paris, 1882, etc.)—for detailed references to all the above, see Enc. Bibl., art. "Trade and Commerce" (cited below); Pomponius Mela, De Situ Orbis (ed. Gronovii, Leyden, 1722); Strabo, Geographica, bks. iii.-xvii. (edd. Paris, 1815, and Berlin, by G. Kramer, 1852); Pliny, Naturalis Historia, bks. iii.-vi. and other passages (Delphin ed., 1685); Ptolemy, Geographiae Libri Octo (the Cologne ed., with maps by Mercator, 1584); Parthey and Pinder's ed. of the Itineraria (see further the notes on Map 55). Modern : Bergier, Histoire des Grands Chemins de l'Empire Romain (ed. 1728); A. Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens (Bern, 1875); Gotz, Die Verkehrswege im Dienste des Welthandels (Stuttgart, 1888); H. F. Tozer, Hist. of Ancient Geography (Camb., 1897); E. Speck, Han,delsgeschichte des Altertums (Leipzig, 1900), vol. i.." Eastern Peoples," vol. ii. "The Greeks," vol. iii. "Carthaginians, Etruscans, and Romans " ; W. M. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor and other works ; C. A. J. Skeel, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Camb., 1901); D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East (London, 1902); and the following articles in Enc. Bibl., "Trade and Commerce," by G. A. Smith ; "Palestine," § 20, by A. Socin ; Hastings' D.B. Extra Vol., "Roads and Travel in the O.T." by Frants Buhl, and "In the N.T." by W. M. Ramsay. See further, Maps 11-12.
10. MODERN PALESTINE ECONOMIC
AUTHORITIES. - H. J. Van Lennep, Bible Lands, their Modern Customs, etc. (Lond., 1875), Pt. I, chs. i.-viii., Pt. II, ch. xii. ; Post, P.E.F.Q., 1891, 110 if.; Ph. J. Baldensperger, papers on "The Immovable East" in P.E.F.Q. for 1903 and following years—the industries are treated in 1903-4, the agriculture 1904, 128 ff., 1906, 192 ff., 1907, 10 ff., 269, 1908, 290 if.; C. T. Wilson,Peasant Life in the Holy Land (Lond., 1906), chs. ix.-xiii. ; G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L. (passim), Jerusalem, vol. i., bk. ii.,The Economics, chs. iv., v., with the many authorities cited there; D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East, ch. xii. ; Baedeker's Palestine, etc. (5th ed., 1912), pp. lii-lvi; Meyer's Reisehandbuch: Palastina u. Syrien (4th ed., 1904), pp. 38-64, 56 f.; Hope W. Hogg, art. "Agriculture" in E.B., V. Schwobel, "Die Verkehrswege u Ansiedlungen Galildas" in Z.D.P.V., xxvii., 1 f-11; T. Cana'an, "Per Kalendar des palastineschen Fellachen," Z.D.P.V., xxxvi., 266 ff. On bee-culture, W. Baldensperger, Bienen u. Bienenzucht in Palastina (not seen). On the Jewish Colonies see papers in Z.D.P.V., xvi. 193 ff., xvii. 301 f., xxxi. 235 ff., xxxv. 161 ff. On the ancient agriculture see H. W. Hogg as cited above, and H. Vogelstein, Die Landwirtschaft in Paleistina, zur Zeit der Mischna (189 - ?; not seen).
Compare Map 14. As on that Map, the various colours on this can be regarded only as approximately true. Recently agriculture and the planting of trees have been developed (it is reported) about Beersheba, and patches of wheat and barley have always been grown by Arabs to the south about several of the scattered settlements and wells. In the Byzantine period the Negeb was much more extensively cultivated. On the E., again, there is some cultivation, on the Jebel Hauran, and even at spots within the Leja. Though Hauran N. of the Yarmuk has been slightly coloured for olives, the plantations of these are few and far between on the volcanic soil of that region. The olive flourishes best on the limestone of the W. and E. ranges, though its cultivation in Moab, once widespread, nearly disappeared owing to political causes, and is only now beginning to develop again. The berries of trees grown in alluvial soils, though larger, are said to produce less oil than those grown on limestone. The best wheat is from Moab, Hauran, and S. of Nablus. The restoration of the culture of the vine, prosecuted since the Moslem invasion by hardly more than a few scattered Christian communities, has been much developed of late by German (on Carmel and at Samna) and Jewish colonists, and in the Lebanon and the Beka` by French companies and others. The Kali or Kilu, (hence our "alkali") is a desert plant, collected in great masses on the steppes E. of Moab, Gilead, and the Anti-Lebanon, the potash ashes of which are carried to the soap factories of Gaza, Nablus, and other towns (Jerus., i. 320; see also Musil, Moab, 131, 147 n., with references). The salt of the Dead Sea coasts is coarse, and much mixed with earth; a finer kind comes from the salt-pans of the Wady Sirhan, on the way to the oasis of El-Jof in Arabia (Jerus., i. 319; Von Oppenheim, Mittelmeer z. Pers. Golf, i. 318, on the salt marshes at Palmyra; Musil, _Ethn. Bericht, 146 f.). On the curing of fish see Jerus., i. 317. On economic wood and metals see Jerus., i. 305, 327 ff.
The manufactures are chiefly these: -soap from olive-oil and kali (Nablus, Gaza, etc.); tanned hides; cotton and silk (Beyrout, Damascus, and parts of the Lebanons); cotton and wool (some of the Jewish colonies); wood and metal furnishings (Damascus); articles for pilgrims (Jerusalem, Bethlehem, etc.); water-skins (Hebron); pottery, in the suburbs of many large and small towns (especially Jerusalem, Ramleh, Lydda, and Gaza); milling (mostly still domestic, but also commercial, on the streams of the Maritime Plain, Esdraelon, and E. Palestine). See Jerus., i. 325 f.
The names on this Map in large capitals - e.g. EL BELKA - are those of the present political divisions of the country, for which see Map 59.
11-12. PALESTINE OROGRAPHICAL
GENERAL MAP SHOWING ROADS AND COMMUNICATIONS
AUTHORITIES. - These will be found cited in the Enc. Bibl. art. "Trade and Commerce," by G. A. Smith, §§ 34-40, and in Hastings' D.B. Extra Volume, "Roads and Travel in O.T." by Frants Buhl, and "in N.T." by W. M. Ramsay. Consult also authorities cited in notes on Map 9, especially V. Schwobel, "Die Verkehrswege, etc., Galilaas," in Z.D.P.V., xxvii. 1 ff. Additional Report on the Literatur der Verkehrsgeographie Pal., by H. Fischer ; G. Dalman, "Die Stadt Samaria u. ihre Verkehrswege," in the Palastinajahrbuch (2nd year).
13. GEOLOGY OF PALESTINE
AUTHORITIES. - Edward Hull, Memoir on the Physical Geology and Geography of Arabia,. Petrma, Palestine, and Adjoining Districts (Pal. Expl. Fund, 1888); also in P.E.F.Q., 1896, pp. 271-3; M. Blanckenhorn, " Kurzer Abriss der Geologie Palastinas," in Z.D.P.V., xxxv. 113 ff., with map ; " Entstehung u. Geschichte des Totes Meers," Z.D.P.V., xix. 1-64; " Geologie der naheren Umgebung von Jerusalem," Z.D.P.V., xxviii. 75 ff.; T. G. Bonney, "The Kishon and Jordan Valleys," in Geol. Magaz., 1904, pp. 575-582. Cp. G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, vol. i., chs. iii., iv., with authorities cited there.
On this map the distinctions of colour are only approximately correct. In addition to the districts depicted as cultivable, there are many other small portions of the surface of Palestine which are cultivable, especially round villages and townships. For instance, in the Lebanon (and to a less extent in Anti- Lebanon) many narrow shelves and hollows are carefully cultivated as vineyards, mulberry groves, gardens of vegetables, and even small fields of grain. The same is true (except for the mulberries) of parts of Gilead. Probably Moab, and certainly the Negeb, south of Judaea, were much more extensively cultivated in ancient times than now.
For a concise and adequate sketch of the vegetation of Syria, see Baedeker's Palestine and Syria, xlix. ff.; and on the natural resources and necessary imports of Judaea, see G. A. Smith's Jerusalem, vol. i., bk. ii. ch. iv. f.
15-30. PALESTINE ON THE SCALE OF 1-INCH TO THE MILE IN SECTIONS
These eight sections (sixteen maps) cover the whole land from about 37 miles N. of Dan to 17 miles S. of Beer-sheba, and from the Mediterranean to the Arabian Desert. They are based (1) for W. Palestine, on the Pal. Exploration Fund's great Map of Western Palestine (scale, 1 inch to the mile ; in 26 sheets, with 3 vols. Memoirs and one of Name Lists and one of Index), the foundation of all the modern cartography of Palestine; (2) for Moab, on R. Brunnow's Karte der sudl. Belka, Moab u. Edom, in 3 Blatt, and U ebersichtslearte des Ostjordanlandes, in vol. i. of Brunnow's and von Domaszewski's Die Provincia Arabia (Strasburg, 1904); and A. Musil's Karte von Arabia Petraea nach eigenen Aufnahmen (Vienna, 1907, with the author's Moab, topogr. Reisebericht, being vol. i. of his Arabia Petraea of the same date); (3) for N. Moab and Ammon, on Conder's and Mantell's map in the Pal. Expl. Fund's Survey ofEastern Palestine, Memoirs, vol. i. (1889); (4) for Gilead (from the Jabbok northwards) and Hauran, on G. Schumacher's. Karte des Ostjordanlandes, published by the Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Palastinas (1908 onwards). For the Lebanon and Hauran, the following have been consulted: R. Huber, Carte de la Province du Liban (Cairo, 1905), and the maps in von Oppenheim's Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf. In addition, frequent reference has been made by the editor to the 3/8-inch scale maps of the Pal. Expl. Fund (Nos. 2-5), to the Raised Map of Palestine, on the same scale, by G. Armstrong, and to the Map of W. Palestine, showing Water Basins in Colour.
In W. Palestine the heights have been taken from the large and other maps of the Pal. Expl. Fund up to the N. limit of the former, and in E. Palestine, from Schumacher's map so far as it extends. Elsewhere they have been calculated from a comparison of the various maps given above and of other travellers. On the E. of Anti-Lebanon, and generally on the extreme E. of the Trans-Jordan region, they must be reckoned as only approximate.
The spelling of the modern names (in hairline italics) has been carefully revised on the basis of the Pal. Explor. Fund Name Lists, collected by Conder and Kitchener, and transliterated and explained by Palmer (1881), with consultation of H. C. Stewardson's Index to the Arabic and English Name Lists in A General Index to the P.E.F. Memoirs (1888). All these have been considered in the light of Socin's criticisms in the Expositor, 1885, p. 256, and of his paper in the Z.D.P.V., xxii. 18-64, "Liste Arabiseher Orts-appelativa." Cp. Schick's and Benzinger's Lists of Names in the nearer and farther environs of Jerusalem, Z.D.P.V., xviii. 149-172, xix. 145-220, and many articles in the P.E.F.Q., Z.D.P.V., and Revue Biblique. The following equivalents have been used for those letters in the Arabic alphabet, the transliteration of which requires explanation:
The above table shows that the transliteration of the modern Arabic place-names is not absolutely consistent. This is due to the fact that the Editor's work of transliteration has extended over some years, during which his views regarding it were altered. Nor did he think it necessary to indicate the exact force of a letter in such common cases as Ard, which should read throughout 'Ard. The student must also keep in mind that not only does the vocalisation of many names differ from mouth to mouth in the same neighbourhood, but that even the grouping of the consonants varies, as, for example, in the well-known case of Mukes, which varies from Mkes to 'Umkes (the prosthetic 'elif being prefixed by some and omitted by others). The points have not always been placed under b, s, t, and 1: some of these omissions are corrected below, others in the Index.
All the names other than the present Arabic ones, Biblical as well as post-Biblical down to the times of the Crusades, are given on the maps in strong letters. The identifications proposed may seem too lavish, but the Editor has deemed it right to mark even some which are uncertain, accompanying them with a query, and to omit only such as seem quite unfounded. In the case both of these and of those which are without a mark of query it must be kept in mind that they do not imply, nor even always suggest, that the very site to which the modern name is attached was also that which owned the corresponding or even the equivalent Arabic name. Place-names in Palestine have tended to drift from their original site, sometimes to a short, and sometimes to a long distance.
These maps should be used to expand and to check the information in the historical Maps, 31-48,
54, 59, 60.
[HERE GOES THE MISSING PAGE!]
VIII. (Maps 29, 30) (continued)—D 5, read el Mehna.
D 6, read esh-Shkera.
E 1, read et-Tunaib and (es-Samik).
E 1, read el-Mu'akkar.
31. PALESTINE BEFORE THE COMING OF ISRAEL. 1500 to 1250 B.C.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: The Babylonian Monuments and Egyptian Monuments of the Period; the Tell-el-Amarna Tablets, c. 1400 B.C. the Israelite traditions from the period, and the archeological references in the Hexateuch. Modern: Ed. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums (1885); W. M. Miller, Asien und Europa (1893), especially chs. 8-18; A. H. Sayce, Patriarchal Palestine (1895), and other works; H. Winckler in 3rd ed. of Schrader's Die Keilinschriften und das A.T. (1903); "Canaan," and other articles in Encyclopxdia Biblica; M'Curdy, History, Prophecy, and the Monuments (London, 1894).
THE difficulty of the geographical data of this period is clue not to their meagreness, but to the fact that the races then appearing in Palestine were numerous and in constant movement; and that the names for them were not used in the O.T. nor elsewhere in any exact tense. the period is one of Egyptian influence. About 1500 Thutmosis (Dhutmes) III conquered Syria up to the Euphrates; but under Amenhotep IV Egyptian sovereignty ceased to be effective. Sety I (c. 1350) reconquered the country as far north as Beirut, pushing his arms also east of the Jordan: see on Map 2. Ramses II (1340-1273) had to subdue the maritime plain, Ephraim and Galilee, and fought Hittites at Kadesh on the Orontes. But before 1200 all Syria had passed from the power of Egypt.
The name Kanaan (also Kna`, Eg. Kenahhi) was first applied to the maritime plain from Gaza to the north limit of the Phoenician territories, but was extended over the mountains. The possession of the valley between the Lebanon and of the Anti-Lebanon by the Amurru or Amorites is well established. The Babylonians extended their name over the whole of west Palestine; and it is probable that as Egyptian authority relaxed the Amorites pushed southwards on both sides of the Jordan. Israelite traditions place two Amorite kingdoms in Bashan, and in Moab north of the Arnon; and call the south end of the west range Mount of the Amorites; while the E Document of the Pentateuch and Amos entitle all tribes conquered by Israel Amorites, just as the J Document calls them Canaanites. The Hittites by 1300 were on the upper Orontes; but already in 1400 (according to the Amarna Tablets), groups of them were acting effectively in Palestine proper; and some scholars hold that they penetrated to Hebron, where they are placed by the P Document. But this may be as general a use of the name as that of Amorites by E and of Canaanites by J.
There is evidence for Hivites on Hermon: in the Old Testament they are mentioned with Amorites. Yet it is possible that Hivite, like Perizzite, refers not to an ethnic or geographical distinction so much as to a definite state of society. We have no evidence for the position of Perizzites or Girgashites.
In the Amarna Tablets, the Habiri (a name identical with Hebrews) and Shuti, nomadic tribes, roved through the land.
It is uncertain whether the Philistines were yet settled in their territories: their advent seems nearly contemporaneous with that of Israel. Similarly Aram.
The forms of names of towns added to their Biblical forms, are those given on the Amarna Tablets.
32. PALESTINE. PERIOD OF ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT AND OF THE JUDGES.
BEFORE 1050 B.C.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: Gen. xxxviii., xlix.; Num. xxi. ff.; Deut. ii. f., xxxiii. ; Josh.; Jud.; 1 Sam. i.-viii. Modern : Commentaries on these Scriptures, especially Moore's and Budde's on Judges; the articles on the Tribes Israel in Enc. Bibl.; Stade, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, 2 es Buch; Guthe, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, §§ 11-19; II. P. Smith, O.T. Hist., ch. vi.; H.G.H.L., chs. xvi.-xix., xxvi. f. ; Winckler's ed. of Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T. ; A. Musil's Moab; Expositor, July-Dec. 1908, pp. 1, 131; Rev. Bibl., 1910, "Les Pays Bibliques et l'Assyrie."
This map gives approximately the disposition of the Tribes of Israel, reflected in the Song of Deborah (circa 1100 B.C.), with qualifications from the other sources.
The centre is Ephraim (a place-name, with a frequent geographical termination, and probably meaning "fertile" region; then the name of a tribe, and in the prophets the name of the N. Kingdom) or Mount Ephraim, the designation of the W. Range from Esdraelon as far S. at least as Bethel (Jud. iii. 27, iv. 5; cf. Jer. xxxi. 4-6; Josephus, v Antt., i. 22). It was held by the tribe of Joseph, with two branches, Ephraim and Manasseh or Machir (Jud. v. 14), between which no demarcation is possible. No document of the period, nor the older forms of the history, JE, say anything of the extension of Manasseh E. of Jordan, but this is stated in Dent., and effect is given to it on the map. The particular sites marked (with or without a query), explain themselves; the city Ephraim, 2 Sam. xiii. 23 (cf. John xi. 54; Josephus, iv B.J., ix. 9; Jerome, O.S., "Efrem") is usually identified with Et-Taiyibeh; but some hold the name for a mistaken spelling of (Ephr-aim or 'Ephr-on (with initial ‘ayin), and compare the 'Ophr-ah of Gideon. 'Amalek of Jud. v. 14 (cf. xii. 15) is probably a wrong reading: LXX give in the valley. S. of Ephraim lay Ben-yamin, i.e. Son of the Righthand or of the South.
Without going into the questions of the origin of Judah and of the direction in which it reached W. Palestine, we may accept the early isolation of this tribe from the other Hebrews, which seems to be stated in Gen. xxxviii. 1. Judah is not mentioned in the Song of Deborah. How far S. it then lay is uncertain ; but the facts are clear : (1) a belt of towns still held by non-Hebrew tribes-Gezer, Chephirah, Beeroth, Kiriath-Jearim, Gibeon, and Jerusalem (Josh. ix., xvi. 10, Jud. i. 21, 29, 2 Sam. iv. 2 f., xxi. 2)-crossed the range between Benjamin and Judah, and the Amorites succeeded in pushing the tribe of Dan out of Sorek and Ayyalon ; and (2) Judah was mixed with Canaanites and other tribes, Calebite, Kenite, Kenizzite, and Jerahmeelite (Jud. i. 9, 20, &c.). Simeon is also assigned to the S. of Judah, in which it disappears (Jud. i. 3, 17, Josh. xix. 1, 9, and lists of towns in Josh. xv., xix.). Dan migrated N. to Laish at the sources of the Jordan (Jud. i. 34-36 and xviii.). In Jud. v. 17 f., Dan is mentioned with Asher, but the association is moral, not geographical. The allusion to Dan's ships is not to their S. domains towards Joppa, but to the Phoenician contacts of their settlement in the N. (cf. Deut. xxxiii. 22, Gen. xlix. 17; probably an allusion to Dan's strategic position on the gate of invasion from the N.).
N. of Ephraim and Manasseh were Zebulun and Issachar, the latter in Esdraelon and so subject to Canaanite dominion (Gen. xlix. 14 f.), Naphtali and Asher. On the map add ASHER across the region W. of NAPHTALI.
E. of Jordan the exact territories of Gad (in Jud. v. 17, Gilead; but in later times farther south, Moabite Stone 10, Num. xxxii.) and Reuben are uncertain.
To complete the map the sites of some stations on the march of the incoming Hebrews through Moab have been added.
33. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF SAUL. ABOUT 1020 B.C.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: The First Book of Samuel, with Judges xxi. and 2 Sam. xxi. Modern: A. Klostermann, Die Bucher Sam. u. der Kon. (1887); S. R. Driver, Notes on the Heb. Text of the Books of Samuel (Oxf., 1890); H. P. Smith, Samuel, in the Intern. Crit. Comm. (Edin., 1899); K. Budde, Die Bucher Sam. in the Kurzer Hand-Commentar (Tubingen, 1902); relevant parts of histories of Israel, especially Wellhausen's and Guthe's ; A. Henderson, Palestine (Edin., 1887); W. Miller, The Least of all Lands (Loud., 1888), ohs. iv.-vii., on Michmash, Elah, Gilboa, and Shiloh ; cp. G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., especially chs. ix. f., xii., xiii. 4, xix. 3; Poels, Le Sanctuaire de Kiriath Jearim (Louvain, 1896, not seen); F. Hagemeyer on Gibeah in Z.D.P. Y., xxxii. 1 ff. (1909); Erwin Nestle, id., xxxiv. 65-118 (1911); R. A. S. Macalister, "The Topography of Rachel's Tomb," in P.E.F.Q., 1912, 74 ff.; other articles are cited below.
THE frontiers indicated on the map are, of course, only approximate. This is true in particular of the Israelite extension over Galilee, the East of Jordan, and southwards into the Negeb. Note the Canaanite wedge between Judah and Benjamin. Some of the place-names require notes: -
Aphek of 1 Sam. iv. 1 is almost certainly Mejdel-Yaba, above and to the N. of the Wady Deir-Ballut (see Map 23, C 3). Here, or near here, stood a tower of Aphek in A.D. 66 (Josephus, II Wars, xix. 1), and the position suits the data in 1 Sam. iv., including the carriage of the news of Israel's defeat the same day to Shiloh (Art. " Aphek " in E.B., by W. R. Smith and G. A. Smith ; A. Sanda, Untersuchungen zur Kunde des alt. Orients, No. 2 of Mittheilungen der Yorderasiatischen Gesellschafts, 1902; H. Guthe on " Aphek " and " Ebenezer " in M. u. N.D.P.V., 1911 and 1912, 50 f.). On the map, therefore, enter Aphek 6 miles S. of Gilgal on Sharon, and 7 1/2 miles N.E. of Ono. But a site so far S. suits neither the Aphek of 1 Sam. xxix. 1, from which the Philistines advanced to the Plain of Esdraelon, nor that of 1 Kings xxix. 6, where Benhadad of Aram mustered his forces against Israel, aiming, of course, at Samaria. These were the same, and lay farther N., either at Kakon (H.G.H.L., 350), or more probably at El-Mejdel (as marked on this map and Map 23, C 1). Apuku, of the lists of Thutmosis III, given as between Lydda and Ono on the S. and Suka and Yhm (Shuweikeh (?) and Yemma (?)) on the N., suits either Mejdel-Yaba or Kakon or el-Mejdel (see further E.B., as above, and letterpress to Map 35).
Kiriath-Jearim (1 Sam. vii. 2, &c.) is marked on this map as the present Kiiryat or I. el-Tynab, a site convenient to the other Canaanite towns with which (though it had become Israelite at the time of this map) it is associated in Josh. ix. 17; suitable to Josh. xv. 9, xviii. 14, and also to the data of Eusebius in his Onomastikon. This now seems, on the whole, more probable than the other site at Khurbet 'Erma (suggested by Henderson, Palestine, 85, 112, 310). In 2 Sam. vi. 2, K.-J. is Baale of Judah.
Mispah (1 Sam. vii. 5 f., &c.) was either Neby Samwil (Map 24, D 4) or Tell-en-Nasbeh (id., E 4).
There were at least four sites called the Gilgal. That in 1 Sam. vii. 16 is either the Gilgal S.E. of Shiloh, or that now represented by the ruins el-Juleijil, 2.1 miles E.S.E. of Shechem (not marked on this map, but see Map 23, E 2), the Gilgal of Deut. xi. 30 (Deut. inCamb. Bible for Schools). The Gilgal of 1 Sam. xi. 15 was either this, or more probably' the Gilgal by Jericho (to which Samuel went down).
In ch. ix. Shalisha is on the E. of Mt. Ephraim ; Sha'alim [sic] may be an error for Sha'alabbim (in Ephraim, Jud. i. 35, Josh. xix. 42); Zuph (Suph), if this be the proper reading (but, t may be an error for Mispah, cp. the LXX B rao-ctfl and the modern Tell en-Nasbeh in Benjamin's territory) was the district round Ramah.
Gibeah, (1 Sam. xiii. 2, 15; xiv. 2, 16) should be Geba, the modern Jeba. On Gibeah of Saul, see authorities quoted above.
Horesh should be read for the wood of EVV. in 1 Sam. xxiii. 15, 18, and was, with little doubt, the Oresa or Oressa of the Greek period, now Khurbet Khoreisa (see Map 28, E 2).
The site of Gath is not known with certainty; nor are the sites of other place-names given in First Samuel but omitted from this map.
34. PALESTINE UNDER DAVID AND SOLOMON. ABOUT 1015-930 B.C.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: the Second Book of Samuel; 1 Kings i.-xi. (cp. 1 Chronicles x. to 2 Chronicles ix.); Pharaoh Shoshenk's list of towns taken by him in Palestine. Modern : the works given in previous list, with I. Benzinger, Die Bucher der Konige (1899); C. F. Burney, Notes on Heb. Text of the Books of Kings (1903); W. M. Muller, Asien u. Europa (1893); G. A. Smith, "Trade and Commerce" in E.B., and Jerusalem, ii., chs. ii., iii., with authorities cited there.
DAVID, at first King of Judah only, succeeded on the death of Ish-ba’al = bosheth), Saul's son, to the allegiance of N. Israel, and to these territories—Benjamin, Ephraim, Jezreel (the Plain of), and all Israel to the N., with Gilead and the Geshurites (? Heb. text, Ashurites; 2 Sam. ii. 8 ff.; v. 1-4). He gradually drove the Philistines off the Judaean highlands, and broke their power by the capture of Gath (v. 17 ff., viii. 1); during this time he took Jerusalem (v. 6 ff.) and made it his capital (for the motives to this, see Jerus., ii. 32 ff.), and concluded an alliance with Hiram of Tyre (v. 11). He conquered Moab to the Arnon (viii. 2), overthrew the Ammonites with their capital (x. 1-14, xi. 16-25, xii. 26-31), defeating also their AramEean allies - Aram Beth-Rehob, probably the district round the present Rihab (Map 26, F 2), Aram Sobah, probably in the Lebanon region, and Maacah in Golan, with the men of Tob (x. 6-13); and crushed a subsequent Aramaean (Syrian) confederacy at Helam (unknown), E. of Jordan (x. 15-17). The phrase Aram,ceans beyond the River (cp. viii. 3) implies that all the Aramaeans S. of the Euphrates were engaged against him, but it is a phrase from the Persian period, and due to a late editor (see notes on Map 37). It is also said that he put garrisons in Damascus (viii. 6), and received tribute from Hamath (not H. on the Orontes, but H. Sobah, 2 Chron. viii. 3) and other cities. In the S. he subdued the Amalekites and smote Edom (not Syria= Aram as in Heb. text) in W. el Milh, near Beersheba, and made Edom tributary (viii. 12-14). From Jerusalem, he, no doubt, began that absorption of Canaanite enclaves in Israel's territory which was completed by Solomon. Ch. xxiv. gives the extent of his kingdom as from Aroer, N. of Arnon and its suburb or toll-town below it in the midst of the valley (see on Deut. xi. 36, in Camb. Bible for Schools), across Gilead to the Yarmuk, with an extension, perhaps, into Bashan, but exclusive of Geshur in Aram (to be distinguished from the other Greshur, to which Absalom fled, xiii. 37 f., xv. 8, where delete in Aram as a gloss, and which is given in Josh. xiii. 2, 1 Sam. xxvii. 8, as in the S.W. of Palestine on the way to Egypt) and Maacah, both of which remained independent. From the Yarmuk the list crosses Jordan up to what the text gives as the land of Tahtim-hodshi, to be read either as the land under Hermon, or, less probably, land of the Hittites towards Kadesh (an ideal boundary), to Dan and Ijon (Iyon), which read for Dan-jaan, and thence turns towards Sidon and the fortress of Tyre (i.e. the domains of his ally Hiram), and so S. by the absorbed cities of Canaanites and Hivites (with the doubtful inclusion of Carmel) to Beersheba in the extreme S., but excluding the Canaanite Gezer and the bulk of Philistia, then, or soon after, under Egyptian sovereignty.
These were the domains which David left to Solomon, with a strong capital, a settled administration, a partially organised trade (2 Sam. xiv. 26), a strong mercenary army, and the enrolment, both in civil and military life, of many foreigners. Solomon embellished the capital, extended the administration, dividing the kingdom into twelve provinces (1 Kings iv. 7), and by fortifying the main avenues to, and lines of traffic through, his kingdom more firmly controlled and vastly extended his trade. In Hasor in Galilee he commanded the N. entrance to the land; in Megiddo the pass from Esdraelon to Sharon; in Beth-horon, Gezer (and perhaps Baalath ?) the roads from Sharon to Jerusalem; and in Thamar the road S. from Hebron (ix. 15-18). Suppressing a revolt in Edom (xi. 14-22), he kept this road open as far as Ezion-geber (Map 8, L 4), beside Elath, from which he sent ships to Ophir (ix. 26 ff.). He thus controlled all the trade between Damascus (with Mesopotamia beyond) and Egypt, and between Arabia and Gaza. Probably for his services in regard to this, Egypt ceded Gezer to him, and he completed the absorption and servitude of the Canaanite and Amorite enclaves in Israel (ix. 16, 20). The ascription of power to him up to the Euphrates (iv. 21, 24) is doubtful; it includes the post-exilic phrase across the river. The only probability is that his commercial influence extended so far. He imported horses, not from Egypt, as the Heb. text reads (x. 28), but from the northern Musri and Kue or Cilicia, as the Greek version enables us to emend it (see Map 2). He lost little of the territories left him—the district of Kabul (ix. 10-14), Damascus, if David had actually occupied it, and perhaps parts of the Negeb and Edom. But his severe levies upon Israel, for the enrichment of his capital, roused the discontent which led to the disruption of the kingdom under his successor ; and the establishment, in spite of him, of a new and vigorous Aramaean power in Damascus, prepared for Israel the most fatal opposition the people had yet encountered.
For the topography of Jerusalem and neighbourhood, see Jerusalem, ii. 39-46, and Nos. 1 and 2 on Maps 47, 48 in this volume.
On this map delete the name Idumaeans in the extreme south.
35. PALESTINE IN THE TIMES OF ELIJAH AND ELISHA. ABOUT 860-800 B.C.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: 1 Kings xvi. to 2 Kings xiii. (cp. 2 Chronicles xvi.-xxv.); Amos i. 3-ii.; the Inscriptions of the Assyrian Shalmaneser II (859-825 B.C.), Adad-Nirari (812-783), and of Mesha of Moab ("The Moabite Stone"). Modern: Commentaries on the above Scriptures, and relevant parts of histories of Israel, especially Wellhausen's, H. P. Smith's, Guthe's ; Buhl, Geogr. d. alten Palastina (1896); Winckler, Die Keilinschriften u. das A.T. (1903); G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., chs. xii., xvi. f., xxvii.; Jerusalem, ii., ch. iv.
During this period the frontiers of the various kingdoms were uncertain, and oscillated violently.
That between Judah and N. Israel (Samaria) moved between Bethel and Geba (H.G.H.L., 251): Bethel, a sanctuary of N. Israel; Geba, long remembered as the N. limit of Judah (1 Kings xv. 22, 2 Kings xxiii. 8). The gorge of Michmash (W. Suweinit) was the natural line; but Israel strove for a footing to the S. at Ramah (1 Kings xv. 17), and Judah to the N. at Bethel (2 Chron. xiii. 19). Geba and Mispah (Neby Samwil, or more probably Tell en-Nasbeh, see Map 25) were the two outposts of Judah (1 Kings xv. 21 f.). Nor did this frontier run to Jordan by the W. Suweinit, but crossed the latter, and by an uncertain line reached the N. end of the Dead Sea, leaving Jericho with N. Israel (1 Kings xvi. 34, 2 Kings ii. 4). On the W. we may assume that Israel did not extend so far S. as the Beth-horons, for Gibbethon (? Kibbiah, 16 miles S.E. of Joppa) was held by Philistines. The S. limit of Judah must have varied much; it was assailed by Edom and Moab, with whom 2 Chron. xx. 1 associates the Me`unim (sic, and not Ammon as in the text), or people of Ma'am, E. of Petra. Jehoshaphat endeavoured to reopen trade with Ophir through Ezion-Geber on the Gulf of 'Akabah, and Amaziah took from Edom a rock-fortress on the way thither, in the Valley of Salt, perhaps the W. el-Milh. Judah's W. frontier was uncertain, Gibbethon was Philistine, Bethshemesh belonged to Judah (2 Kings xiv. 11), and Libnah was won by the Philistines (2 Chron. xx. 10). Gath (site uncertain), said to have been fortified with Mareshah by Rehoboam (2 Chron. xi. 5 ff.), was taken by Hazael of Aram (2 Kings xii. 17).
The territories of N. Israel varied immensely during the period. Omri held E. Palestine from as far S. as Medeba, Yahaz, and ‘Ataroth; and probably from the Arnon, N. over Gilead, and perhaps Bashan as well. In W. Palestine his farthest N. limit is uncertain - hardly N. of Dan. But he lost some cities to Ben-hadad (1 Kings xx. 34), and Mesha recovered from Ahab Moab, as far N. at least as Medeba. Mt. Carmel is assumed by the story of Elijah to have belonged to N. Israel. But neither it nor the coast to the S. can have long continued Israelite. The change, under Omri, of the capital from the E. watershed to the W. at Samaria, was connected, of course, with the Phoenician alliance, under which alone Carmel could have been held by Israel. About 839 the whole of Israel's domains E. of Jordan were lost to Hazael of Damascus and the Ammonites (2 Kings x. 32 IT., cp. Amos i. 3, 13). He also invaded W. Palestine by Esdraelon and the pass thence by Dothan on to Sharon. Towards the end of the century, Aram (Syria) was weakened by Assyrian invasions, Joash of Israel recovered many cities, and the former limits of the kingdom were restored under his son, Jeroboam II, except to the S. in Moab.
The position of Aphek is uncertain. It may have lain in Esdraelon, but was more probably in Sharon, to which the Aramaean forces strategically came with the view of attacking Samaria from the W., the easiest approach to it. The map places it at El-Mejdel (see also Map 23, C 1). Guthe (M. u. N.D.P.V.), 1911, 33 f.) argues for Mejdel Yaba, but agrees that this is too far S. for the attack on Samaria; see on Map 33. For the site of Abel-Meholah, at Tell el-Hammi S. of Beth-shan, see Holscher, Z.D.P.V., xxxiii. 16 f., and Thomsen, id., xxxvii. 187. Ramoth-Gilead (if not Gadara ?) was certainly the modern er-Remtheh (for which see Map 21, D 4). Tishbeh, Elijah's home, was in Gilead, and the brook Chereth (usually but wrongly identified with W. Kelt above Jericho) was probably a neighbouring wady (perhaps the W. Yabis); certainly it lay E. of Jordan (1 Kings xvii. 3, before=E. of). The entering in of Hamath was somewhere on the Orontes, by Riblah. Karkar, where Ahab and Ben-hadad fought Shalmaneser II, lay N. of this map, towards Hamath (see Maps 1 and 2). In 2 Kings vii. 6, for Egypt= Mir-aim (whose kings, along with those of the Hittites, Aram "hired against Israel ") read Musri or Musrim, i.e. the Musri of N. Syria, off the extreme N.E. corner of the Levant. In 2 Kings viii. 21, for Sceir read either with Ewald Socar, or with LXX Secir, the land of Edom, which is the more probable.
36. PALESTINE FROM 720 B.C. TO THE EXILE OF JUDAH, 586 IL
Authorities - Ancient: 2 Kings xvii.-xxv. (cp. 2 Chronicles xxix.-xxxvi.) ; Isaiah vii.–x., xx., xxxvi. f.;
Micah and Jeremiah, passim; Ezekiel xl.–xlviii. ; Ezra and Nehemiah ; the Inscriptions of Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Assurbanipal, of Assyria. Modern : Besides the relevant commentaries and histories, H.G.H.L., ch. xii., and Jerusalem, ii., chs. v.–xiv., with the works cited there.
IN 721, the city of Samaria and the whole of N. Israel fell to Assyria. Under Manasseh, Judah was also subject to that power. Only when the Assyrian power weakened was Josiah of Judah able to exercise his power at Bethel and in the cities of Samaria (2 Kings xxiii. 15, 19 f.). There were still faithful Jewish communities left there (Jer. xli. 4 ff.). On the number of Jews left in Judaea during the Exile, and the state of Jerusalem, see Jerusalem, ii., ch. x. On the fall of Jerusalem and the deportation of so many of its population, the Edomites pressed northwards on the Jewish territory, extending, it would appear, beyond Hebron.
A number of the place-names of this period have not been inserted on the map because their sites are uncertain. For example, Altaku, where Sennacherib defeated an army of the confederate States of Palestine with Arabs and Egyptians (?), is probably the Eltekeh of Joshua xix. 43 fr., somewhere between Ekron and Jerusalem, and near Thimna.
37. PALESTINE UNDER THE PERSIANS. 538 B.C.-332 B.C.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: Ezra and Nehemiah [2 Chron. xv. 9-15, xxx.]; Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii., lxiii. 7-lxiv. 11 (?); (?) Psalms xliv., lxxiv., lxxix., lxxxix. ; Herodotus, iii. 89 ff. ; the Periplus of Scylax Caryandensis (under Darius Hystaspis, in Geogr. Grxci Minores, i. 15 ff.), § 104; Josephus, xi Antiquities; Eusebius' Chronicon, ii. Modern : Commentaries on Ezra and Nehemiah ; Histories of Israel - especially Stade's, ii. 194-269; Wellhausen's, 119-182, and Guthe's, §§ 80-82 ; Noldeke, art. "Persia" in Ency. Britannica (9th ed.); G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., ch. xii., "The History of a Frontier" (i.e. between Samaria and Judaea); Jerusalem, ii., chs. xii. - xiv.
Cyrus succeeded in 538 to the Babylonian power in Western Asia. Cambyses (529-522) conquered Egypt with the help of the Phoenician cities. Herodotus (iii. 90-94), in recounting the division of the Persian Empire into Satrapies, gives as the fifth of these Syria, Phoenicia, and Cyprus. It was called `Abar-Naharah, Beyond-the-River (Ezra v. 6, vi. 6). This division probably took place under Darius Hystaspis: the capital of the fifth Satrapy would be at either Aleppo or Damascus, or Samaria. The maritime cities given on the map are those given in the Periplus of Scylax Caryandensis. He says Ake (Akko) and Askalon were under Tyre; Dorus (Dora) under Sidon. He gives the name Ccele-Syria to the whole of the country from the mouth of the Orontes to Askalon. Ake was the naval base of the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt (Strabo, xvi. 25), and was occupied under Artaxerxes II by Pharnabazus. Artaxerxes III subdued revolts in Phoenicia, Egypt, and probably Judaea. In 353 he marched through Syria, probably took Jericho, and carried into exile a number of Jews (Eus. as above; Solinus, 354; Orosius, iii. 76 f.). Sidon and other Phoenician cities fell to him in 348. It may have been at this time that his general Bagoas entered Jerusalem and violated the temple (Jos., xi Ana. vii.). Egypt was reduced by 343, after a disaster to the Persian army at the "Serbonian Bog" (Map 8, G H 1) in 346.
A small number of Jews returned from Babylon to Jerusalem in 537-6, and completed the building of the Temple in 516. Ezra arrived with a company in 458 (?), and Nehemiah, with the King's commission to him as Governor, in 445, after which he rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem; and on a second visit in 432. During this century the Jews had been alternately harassed by, and tempted to amalgamate with, the Samaritans. They had spread gradually beyond Jerusalem, and settled in a number of their former cities. But progress was slow and its stages are uncertain. On their S. they had the Edomites, pushed from their former territories about Petra, up on the S. of Judaea. The Jewish frontiers against Samaritans and Idumaeans respectively must have fluctuated throughout the period. On Nehemiah's arrival, in 445, the towns mentioned as occupied by Jews are (besides Jerusalem and suburbs) Jericho, Gibeon, Mispah, Zanoah, Beth-hakkerem, Tekoah, Bethsur, and Keilah (Neh. iii.). A later list (Neh. xi.), probably subsequent to Nehemiah's time, describes them as spread as far S. as Hebron, and even Moladah and Beersheba, and S.W. to Lachish. It is in conformity with these data that our map has been coloured in those directions. According to the same list, they also spread so far N.W. as to inhabit Lod and Ono. But these districts were still Samaritan in the time of the Maccabees. On the map, therefore, a debateable territory has been marked between a line running S. of Lod and Bethhoron, but N. of Michmash and Bethel, and another following the course of the River Kanah (Wady Ishar or Kaneh), which was the probable frontier after the time of the Maccabees. For details see H.G.H.L., ch. xii., "History of a Frontier" ; Jerusalem, ii. 354 ff. Some exclude Jericho from Judaa, for strong reasons (Id. 354, 355).
Probably even at this time a number of Jews were scattered throughout Galilee and the E. of Jordan. Some think that 2 Chron. xv. 9-15 and xxx. reflect this condition. Cf. 1 Maccabees, v.
38. PALESTINE IN THE TIMES OF THE MACCABEES. 168-135 B.C.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: 1 Maccabees ; 2 Maccabees is of additional, but inferior value (but see on Niese below); Dan. ch. xii. ; probably Ps. lxviii. (Wellh.) ; Josephus, xii Antt. iv.—xiii vii.; i Wars, i.-ii., 3; Polybius, Histories, vii., xvi., &c. ; Diodorus Siculus, xix. 95, 98, based on Hieronymus of Kardia; Appian, Roman History, xi. 1, 8, 11; for the Coins, see Eckhel, Doctrina Veterum Numorum, vol. iii. ; De Saulcy, Numismatique de la Terre Sainte; Madden, Coins of the Jews; Head, Historia Numorum; Macdonald, Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, vol. iii. Modern: Schurer, Geschichte des Judischen Volkes, 3rd ed., vol. i. 4-7, 1905: Fairweather, The First Book of Maccabees (Cambr. Bible for Schools), 1897; Ewald, Hist. of Israel, v.; Gratz, Hist. of the Jews, ii. 1898, and other modern histories; Benedict Niese, Kritik der Beiden-Makkabeierbucher, 1900 (a strong appreciation of 2 Maccabees); Stark, Gaza und die Philist. Kuste, 1852; Buhl, Studien zur Topographic des Nordl. Ostjordanlandes, 1894, and Geogr. des Alten Paletstina, 1896; Schumacher, " Das sud. Basan," Z.D.P.V., xxi. 65-227 (1897); G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., xii. 252-255, xxvii. 588 if.; also P.E.F.Q., 1901, 344-360, 1902, 27 ff., Jerusalem, i. 398-407, ii. 375-456; Peters and Thiersch,Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa (Pal. Explor. Fund), 1895; C. R. Conder, Judas Maccabeus, ed. 1894; G. Holscher,Palastina in der Pers. u. Hellenistischen Zeit, v.-vii., and in Z.D.V.P., xxix. (1906); the relevant articles in the Enc. Bibl., and Hastings' D.B.
The period illustrated in this map really began in 198 B.C., when Antiochus III defeated the troops of Ptolemy V at Paneas, and extended the Seleucid domains to Rhinokoroura. All Syria, from this N. to the Euphrates, was divided, by the R. Eleutherus, into Seleucis to the N. and Coele-Syria to the S. Of the latter the southmost satrapy was Idumaea, including Idumaea proper, Judaea, Moab, and Peraea (Diod. Sic., xix. 95, 98).
N. of Idumaea was the satrapy of Samaria, the others being Phoenicia and Coe le-Syria proper. Schurer (citing xii Antt. iv. 1, 4) substitutes Judaea for Idumaea. The data differ, and may refer to different periods. It is always a difficult question whether in Maccabees and Josephus "Idumaea," "Judaea" and "Samaria" are used as official (Seleucid) designations or as popular names, and the task of determining their boundaries is precarious.
The Jewish territory was practically the ancient kingdom of Judah minus the region S. of Hebron. The N. frontier towards Samaria was uncertain (H.G.H.L., 252 ff.), but crossed the watershed N. of Bethel. Emmaus (Amwas), Beth-horon and Timnath were in Judaea (1 Mace. ix. 50), but Aphaerema (et-Taiyibeh), .Lydda, and Ramathaim (? Beit Rima) were still Samaritan Nomoi or toparchies, probably long in debate between the Jews and Samaritans, and claimed by the Jews in 145. On the W. the territory of the former Philistine cities, now Phoenician and Hellenised, came inland as far as Ekron and Gezer (Gazara), first made Jewish under Jonathan and Simon. The frontier was probably the line between the Shephelah and the Judaean range (H.G.H.L., 205 f.). The S. frontier is uncertain. Hebron in the time of Judas was occupied by Idumaeans (1 Macc. v. 65), but perhaps only temporarily. The name Idumaea seems to have extended sometimes N. (iv. 15, 29), sometimes to have been confined to the S. (iv. 61), of Hebron; the capital was Marissa, or Mareshah, commanding the road from Gaza to Hebron, and the seat of a Phoenician colony with considerable Greek culture (Peters and Thiersch, p. 9). On the E. the Jewish frontier ran up the edge of the plateau above the valley of the Dead Sea and Jordan (which was at the beginning of the period Idumaean) to an uncertain distance above Jericho. But besides the Jewish populations in the above three toparchies, there were communities of Jews in Galilee, Gilead and Arbatta (probably the Araboth, or Plains of Jordan), as we learn from the campaigns of Judas for their relief. Tobiah or Hyrkanus, son of Joseph son of Tobiah, had (before 170 ?) built a moated palace, Tyrus ('Arak el 'Amir), E. of Jordan, and, collecting cavalry, whom he housed in the neighbouring caves, kept the surrounding " Arabs " in subjection and sustained a principality of his own (Jerusalem, ii. 424 ff., with illustrations).
The following are the chief events and political changes of the period: -
175, Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) began to reign. 170, He plundered the Temple. 168, Razed the walls of Jerusalem, and fortified and garrisoned the ancient citadel, "the city of David," called henceforth the 'Akra, to the S. of the Temple; and on the altar of the burnt offering built an altar to Zeus. 168-7, Revolt of pious Jews under Mattathias of Modein and his five sons, John, Simon, Judas, Eleazar and Jonathan. 166-5, Victories of Judas over the Syrians, and his recapture and cleansing of the Temple. 164-3, Judas' campaigns: (I) in Akrabattine (not the place of that name S.W. of the Dead Sea, but about ‘Akrabbeh between Judaea and Samaria; (2) against the tribe of Baian (unknown) ; (3) against the Ammonites, from whom he took Gazara (2 Macc., perhaps Ptolemy's Gadera, in or near Es-Salt); (4) Gilead and farther N. to Bosra, Ramethah (so Syr., not Dathema, Gk.) or Remta, and other towns in Hauran (1 Mace. v.), with Ephron (or Gephron on W. Ghafr, W. of Irbid); (5) Simon at the same time marched into Galilee as far as Ptolemais; (6) Judas "smote" Hebron, and marched by Marissa to Ashdod or Azotus, but Eleazar was defeated and slain at Beth-sur, and the Jews, besieged in the Temple, surrendered Mount Sion, but received liberty to practise their religion. Henceforth their struggle was for political independence.
162-1, Last campaigns of Judas between Jerusalem and Ramleh, and against a Syrian advance from Esdraelon through Samaria to Berea (? Beeroth, near Bethel), or, according to some MSS., Beer-zath (? Bir-ez-zeit, near Gophna); Judas, camping at Eleasa and joining battle, was slain.
160-158, First campaigns of Jonathan (who with Simon had rallied the Jews in the wilderness of Judea) in Moab and on Jordan; fortification by Bacchides of many towns. 158-153, Growth of Jonathan's power, with his centre at Michmash. 153-143, Contest between the Seleucid factions for the support of Jonathan; his establishment in Jerusalem ; capture of Askalon and receipt from Alexander of Ekron and from Demetrius of the high-priesthood and the three toparchies (see above); capture of Gaza, Beth-sur, and Joppa, with the fortification of Jerusalem and other Judman towns. Death of Jonathan.
143-2, Simon fortified the Judaean strongholds and became Ethnarch, took Gezer and the Akra by surrender of the garrison. 142-135, The reign of Simon as High Priest, Strategos and Ethnarch, with rights of coinage. His sons defeated the Syrian Kandebaus near Jamnia. Simon was slain at Dokus (`Ain Duk), and his son, John Hyrkanus, became "king."
39. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (AND 'QUEEN ALEXANDRA). 103-67 B.C.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: Josephus, xm Antt., xii.-xvi. ; xiv Antt., i. 4; i Wars, iv. ; Strabo, Geog., xvi. 15 if.; Pliny, HN., v. 16  ; further ancient material has been handed down by the Byzantine G. Syncellus, Ekloge Chronographias, ed. Dindorff, i. 558 ff. For the coins of Alexander and the Phoenician cities, see Madden, Coins of the Jews, 1903 (1881), 33 if.; Eckhel, Doctr. Vet. Num., vol. iii. ; De Saulcy, Numismatique de la Terre Sainte; Head, Hist. Num., 673 ff. Modern: Schurer, Gesch., i., § 10 f. ; Schlatter, Zur Topogr. und Gesch. Palastinas 13, 48 f., and Gesch. Israels von Alexander, &c., 13-15; Bevan, Jerusalem under the High Priests (Lond., 1904); G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, i. 409 f., ii. 458-463.
This period in Syria may be called that of the "Tyrants," men of both Greek and Semitic race, who took advantage of the weakness of the Ptolemies and Seleucids to usurp domains varying from a single town and its surroundings and two or three towns, to territories of a considerable size. The number of autonomous cities was thus reduced.
Alexander, succeeding to Idumaea, Judaea, Samaria, S. Galilee, and part of the Maritime Plain, brought under his sway, in the course of several campaigns, more of Palestine than any Israelite prince since Solomon. Towards the close of his life in 78, his power was more or less established over the bulk of this territory, and it seems to have been retained by his widow, the first Israelite queen since Athaliah, during the nine years of her reign. Yet it is uncertain how firmly the subjects of his conquests were held by him or by her. I have included with some hesitation the part of Moabitis, S. of Arnon. Yet Josephus appears reliable in his statements that Alexander took Rabbath-Moab, and Zoara, along with Alousa in S.W. Palestine, from the Nabateans, who, however, about the same time extended their supremacy as far N. as Damascus (c. 85), but held this only for a short interval, for it was autonomous again in 70-69. Zeno Cotylas, a tyrant, held Rabbath-Ammon and adjacent territory against both Alexander and the Nabateans. Josephus extends Alexander's conquests to Rhinokoroura (beyond this map), and on the west Askalon (independent since 104) alone preserved its freedom, for Gaza fell to Alexander in 96, and for a time at least he held Strato's Tower and Dora, the domains of another tyrant, Zoilus. Josephus also assigns to him Carmel, but he held this probably only while he was besieging Ptolemais. This city had but intervals of autonomy during the period, but Tyre and Sidon, autonomous since 126 and 111 respectively, retained their freedom. Strabo says that Beyrut and Byblus (which for a time before Pompey's arrival had a tyrant of its own, Cinyrus) suffered from Ptolemy, son of Mennaeaus (85-40), a tyrant with effective power as chief of an human confederacy over the Beka‘, Anti-Lebanon as far as Abila (thus threatening Damascus) and S. into N. Galilee, along with a great hold on the W. at Botrys and Theoprosoupon. Chalcis was his capital. E. of Jordan the extent of Alexander's conquests northwards is uncertain. Seleucia and Gamala, said by Josephus to have been taken by him, are, with most authorities, placed in Gaulanitis, over which Ituraean influence extended somewhat. But Holscher identifies Seleucia with the southern Abila, E. of Gadara, and Gamala with Philoteria, an unknown site on the Lake of Galilee, given along with Abila and Hippos by Syncellus.
The map shows the kingdom claimed for Alexander in its fullest extent. He never can have held it all at once, and many of its outlying portions he held only for a short time.
40. PALESTINE AFTER POMPEY'S RE-ARRANGEMENT. 63-48 B.C.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: Josephus, i Wars, vii.-ix. ; )(xiv Antt., ii.-vi.; Strabo, Geog., xvi. 15 ff.; Pliny, H.N., v. 16 ; Dion Cassius, xxxvii.; Appian, Syr., I., xvii. Modern: Stark, Gaza u. die Philistaische Kuste (1852), 503 ff.; Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung (ed. 1873), i. 234, 248; Schurer, Gesch. des Judisch. •Volkes (3rd ed.), §§ 12 f., with App. I. and II., and § 23 ; Schlatter, Gesch. Isr. von Alex. dem Grossen (1900), 16 f. ; G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., 538-547, &c. ; Jerusalem, i. 411, ii. 388, and E.B. art. "Decapolis"; Holscher, Pal. in der Pers. u. Hellen. Zeit, 95 ff.; Z.D.P.V., iv. 245 f.
The previous map illustrates the period of the "Tyrants"; this, the limitation of their powers and the recovery of the Free Cities under Rome.
In the spring of 63 B.C. Pompey marched S. by Lysias, near Apamea, Heliopolis, and Chalcis to Damascus (xiv Antt., iii. 2, amended by Niese, vol. iii. p. xxii.), executing on the way the tyrants of Tripoli and Byblus, but he left Ptolemy Mennwi (see previous map) to his human dominions with reduced authority. Having received the rival Jewish princes Hyrkanus and Aristobulus, with representatives of their people, he set out against the Nabat2eans, but learning that Aristobulus was preparing at Alexandrium (Kurn-Surtubeh) to resist the Roman decision if adverse to himself, Pompey turned by Pella, Scythopolis, and Korea (Tell el Mazar, above W. Kurawa el-Mas'udy) into Jud2ea, and, securing a base of supplies at Jericho, besieged and took Jerusalem.
The whole of Syria, from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt (W. el 'Arish), was taken for Rome, and organised in such different relations to her authority as were suitable to the various nationalities and their politics and histories prior to the conquests of Alexander Jannaeus. The Province of Syria was constituted, including at first all "Upper Syria " - as far S. as the Lebanons - and the coast land of Palestine - both Phoenicia and Philistia, all of it for the first time under the former of these names - as far S. as Raphia. The cities released from the tyrants were declared "free," with an "aristocratic" constitution (Josephus), and rights of coinage, asylum, and property in the surrounding districts, but liable to military service and fiscally subject to the province. The relations of Tyre and Sidon to the province may have differed from those of the others, for, like Askalon, they had preserved their autonomy. Similar freedom within the province was granted to the Greek cities of Coele-Syria, which term, proper to the valley between the Lebanons, now (and perhaps from an earlier time) covered the interior of the country southwards on both sides of the Jordan.
Soon after this some of these cities formed, in defence against their Semitic neighbours, the league known from its original number as Decapolis: - Scythopolis (the only one W. of Jordan, unless, as Marquardt and Holscher think, Samaria was included later), Pella, Gadara, and Hippos; Dion, Gerasa, Philadelphia, Raphana (unknown), Kanatha, and Damascus later. Other eight were added: Abila, Kanata, Kapitolias, and some of the frontier Semitic towns, incorporated in the Empire in 106 B.C.
The Nabataeans, again withdrawn from Damascus, had already recovered part of Moabitis from the Jews, including all S. of the Arnon, and Alousa, W. of the Dead Sea.
Iduma, abandoned to the Nabataeans by Hyrkanus II, appears to have been under the Idumaean Antipater, whose father (of the same name) had been appointed its governor by Jannaeus. Its two chief towns, Adora and Marissa, were declared free.
To Hyrkanus II, with the titles of Ethnarch and High Priest, there were left only the Jewish territories of Judaea proper, Galilee and Peraea, but in fiscal subjection to the province. The S. border of Judaea is uncertain : the map marks it N. of Adora, but possibly it ought to run S. of that town. In 57 Gabinius deprived Hyrkanus of his civil powers, and divided the country into five Synedria or Synodoi, with separate jurisdictions and their centres at Jerusalem, Gadara (? Gezer), Amathus, Jericho, and Sepphoris, Antipater being the Epimeletes or fiscal superintendent of the whole. In 47 Caesar restored to Hyrkanus the title of Ethnarch, and made Antipater Epitropos or Procurator of Judmaea in the larger sense, i.e. the above three districts along with Idumeea.
All the above names are on the map. Unknown are the positions of Hyrkanium (taken by Gabinius), Thrax and Taurus (forts in the passes leading to Jericho, taken by Pompey), Arethusa (in Philistia ?), and Gaba.
41. PALESTINE UNDER MARK ANTONY. c. 42-31 B.C.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: Josephus, i Wars, x.-xix., xiv Antt., xv Antt., i.-v.; Strabo, Geog., xvi.; Dion Cassius, xlix. ff. For Coins, see notes to Maps 39, 40. Modern: Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, i. 242 ff.; Schurer, Gesch. des Jud. Volkes, § 15 and App. I. f.; with other works cited for Maps 39, 40.
While Maps 39, 40 illustrate a period of "tyrants" suppressing the free cities, and a period in which the "tyrants" were curbed and the free cities restored by the arms of Rome, the next two Maps, 41 and 42, show how one great "tyrant," Herod, combined the rival interests and established a large kingdom by the use both of the Hellenic spirit and the power of the Roman Empire.
About 47, Antipater, Procurator of all Judaea (see notes to Map 40), appointed his eldest son, Phasael, military governor (strategos) of Jerusalem, and Herod, his second, "with equal authority" in Galilee. During the war of Octavian and Antony against Cassius and Brutus, Antony appointed Herod fiscal superintendent (epimeletes) of "all Syria." Cassius (Legate 44-42) had "set up" tyrants all over Syria, including Marion over the Tyrians. After the battle of Philippi, Antony came to Syria, which, except for the Parthian invasion, remained his till 31. He made Herod and Phasael Tetrarchs, a title which had lost its original meaning—" rulers of fourth-parts "—and was applied generally to dynasts below the rank of kings, " Quarterlings." In 40, Lysanias succeeded Ptolemy Mennaei over the Ituraean confederacy. With his help and that of the Parthians who conquered all Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia (except Tyre), Antigonus, son of Aristobulus II, seized Jerusalem. Herod, with his forces, withdrew to Oressa (so rightly Schlatter, for Thressa of xiv Antt., xiii. 9, or Ressa, xv. 2), and, while the Parthians destroyed Marissa, put his family in Masada with a few troops, disbanded the rest, and fled by Petra and Egypt to Rome; where Antony had him declared by the Senate King of the Jews (of Idumaeans and Samarians, Appian). Ventidius having driven out the Parthians in 39, Herod landed at Ptolemais, collected an army, took Joppa, and brought his adherents in Masada and Oressa N. to Samaria, and after further campaigns in Idumaea and Galilee, visited Antony at Antioch. Hearing of revolts against his party - the Romans apparently held only Samaria and Gittha - Herod returned, and with two legions under Sosius subdued Galilee, won a battle at Isanas, N.W. of Bethel, and took Jerusalem, 37 B.C., slaying Antigonus, and so becoming king de facto as well as de jure ("Antony then turned them over to a certain Herod to rule," Dion Cass.). In 34, Antony gave Cleopatra the Phoenician coast, except Tyre and Sidon, parts of the Nabataean and Idumaean domains, and Jericho, which last two she leased to Herod. In 32, he was sent by Antony against the Nabataeans, and defeated them at Diospolis or Dioupolis, near Kanatha, probably the present Suleim (as, in the Chronogr. of Joh. Malala, Salamine, a city of Palestine, is said to have been called Diospolis by Augustus), was routed by them near Kanatha and at Ormiza (unknown), but vanquished them at Philadelphia. He seized Heshbon and Medeba, but the Arnon remained the Nabataean frontier.
42. PALESTINE UNDER HEROD THE GREAT. 31-4 B.C.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: Josephus, i Wars, xx.-xxiii. ; xv-xvii Antt.; Strabo, Geog., xvi.; Dion Cassius, l.-liv.; for Coins, see notes on Maps 39, 40. Modern: As in notes to previous maps, and G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, ii., chs. xvii., xviii.
In 32, Octavian defeated Antony at Actium, and Herod, having made his peace with the victor, was confirmed as king, and had Jericho restored to him, along with Gadara, Samaria, Gaza, Anthedon (rebuilt as Agrippias or Agrippeion, in order to control with Gaza the Nabataean trade), Joppa, Straton's Tower, and probably Ashdod and Jamnia, while Askalon and Dora remained free. In 27 he rebuilt Samaria under the name Sebaste, and in 25 began at Straton's Tower the harbour and town which he named Caesarea. Sebaste and Caesarea illustrate the fresh, westward exposure of Judaea towards Rome. In 23, Augustus gave Herod Trachonitis and Batanaea, and then, or in 20, the domains of Zenodorus (on all of which see H.G.H.L. through the index, and for Zenodorus, Scharer, App. I.). His brother Pheroras became Tetrarch of Peraea. In 9 B.C. Herod subdued the Arabs of Trachonitis at Raepta (unknown), garrisoned the district, built for a Babylonian Jew, Zamaris, fortresses in Batana, and a village, Bathyra (perhaps Busr el-Hariri, on the border of the Trachon or Leja), thus subduing and in part civilising the whole region. At Seia, now Si'a, he rebuilt a Nabataean temple, in which the earliest Greek inscription extant in the region records the erection of his statue. But disorder soon revived. In 4 B.C., after a vain attempt at a cure in the waters of Callirrhoe in Moab (W. Zerka Ma'in, P.E.F.Q., 1905, 170, 219), Herod died. His other buildings were the fortress of Alexandrium (Kurn-Surtubeh), Herodium, near Jerusalem, Masada, Machaerus, Hyrkania (unknown), and another Herodium (identified by Schlatter with Machaerus). He also strengthened Heshbon in Peraea, and Gaba in Esdraelon, rebuilt Kephar Saba under the name Antipatris; and founded in the Jordan valley Phasaelis, now Fusa'il.
43. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST: OR FROM THE DEATH OF
HEROD THE GREAT. 4 B.C.-37 A.D.
AUTHORITIES. - Ancient: The Gospels and the Book of Acts ; Josephus, xvii Antt., VIII to xviii _Antt., vii.; I Wars, xxxiii. to II Wars, xi.; Pomponius Mela, De Situ Orbis, i. 10-12: Strabo, Geogr., xvi. 2; Pliny, H.N., v. 13-19, vi. 32; Ptolemy,Geogr., v. 15-17, with Tabula Asia iv. Later: Eusebius and Jerome, Onomasticon (ed. Larsow and Parthey, 1862; cf. Lagarde's Onomastica Sacra, 1887), and the Madaba Map in Mosaic. For the Coins, see the works quoted on Palestine in Maccabean times. Inscriptions: Le Bas and Waddington, Inscriptions Grecques et Latines recueillies en Grece et en Asie. Mineure; W. Ewing in the P.E.F.Q., 1895; Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, pars ii., tom. i. Modern: Schurer, Gesch des Judischen Volkes, etc. (3rd ed.), 16, 17 (see his lists of authorities); Keim, Jesus of Nazara (Engl. transl.); Hausrath, N.T. Times (Engl. transl.); Merrill,Galilee in the Time of Christ (3rd ed.); Henderson, Palestine; Schlatter, Zur Topogr. u. Gesch. Palastinas; G. A. Smith, Histor. Geogr. of the Holy Land, Jerusalem, ii. ch. xx., Biblical World, 1900, 436 ff., "The Home of our Lord's Childhood"; W. R. Ramsay, The Education of Christ (1902); Furrer, Zeitschrift f. die N.T. Wissenschaft, 1902 ; " Verkehrs Wege u. Ansiedlungen Galilaas," by Dr. V. S. Schwobel, Z.D.P.V., xxvii. (1904); "Die Ortschaften u. Grenzen Galilaas nach Josephus," by W. Oehler, Z.D.P.V., xxviii. (1905); W. Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels (Oxf., 1903); G. A. Smith, Jerus., ii., ch. xx. ; E. W. G. Masterman, Studies in Galilee (Chicago, 1909).
Herod's will divided his kingdom among his sons. Archelaus was to succeed him as king, Antipas to receive Galilee and Peraea, and Philip Trachonitis and neighbouring provinces E. of the Lake of Galilee. With modifications, this was confirmed by Augustus.
Tetrarchy of Archelaus. - Archelaus, with the title not of King but of Ethnarch, received Idumaea, Juda and Samaria, with Caesarea, Joppa, and Jerusalem. Gaza (with Gadara and Hippos) was put under the Province of Syria; and Salome, Herod's sister, received Jamnia, Ashdod, and the palace of Askalon, which in 10 A.D. she left to the wife of Augustus. In the same year Archelaus was banished to Gaul. By irrigating "the Plain" with water from the village of Neara, he raised a plantation of palms and built a village called Archelais. The site is uncertain, but probably the same as Naaratha of the Onomasticon, 5 R.M. from Jericho (see further H.G.H.L., 354 n. 1). His country was brought directly under the Province of Syria, but with a special Procurator (epitropos; Jos. eparcos and hgemwn; N.T. hgemwn); Josephus calls it eparcia, and Tacitus (Ann., ii. 32) provincia. The capital was Caesarea (Tac., ii. 78), but at the Feasts the Procurator went up to Jerusalem, where his Praetorium was the Palace of Herod (Jerus., ii. 573 ff.), for the Praetorium in Caesarea, see Acts xxiii. 35. The province was for fiscal purposes divided into toparchies. Josephus gives eleven - Jerusalem, Gophna, Akrabatta, Thamna, Lydda, Ammaus, Pella, Idumaea, Engaddi, Herodeion, Jericho. Pliny (H.N., v. 14) gives ten - Jericho, Emmaus, Lydda, Joppa, Acrabatena, Gophna, Thamna, Betholeptephene, Orina and Herodium. Orina, in which was Jerusalem, is doubtless the same as the toparchy Jerusalem of Josephus. For the Pella of Josephus (Pella being outside of Judaea) substitute Pliny's Betholeptephene, which Josephus himself (iv Wars, viii. 1, Niese's reading) gives as a toparchy, Bethleptenphon, perhaps the present Bet-nettif. Schurer calls Pliny's addition of Joppa erroneous, on the ground that Joppa was not properly a Judaean town (p. 182), yet elsewhere he says that it remained constantly united with Judaea proper; and we have seen it included with Caesarea in Archelaus' ethnarchy. Joppa had been distinctively Jewish since the Maccabees; Caesarea was very Roman (see H.G.H.L., 136-442).
The limits of Idumaea, Judaea, and Samaria have already been described in connection with other Maps. Here it need only be said that Josephus states that the maritime parts of Judaea extended to Ptolemais, i.e. to the borders of the territory of that city which probably included Carmel (E. Bib., col. 3972). But Dora remained under the province of Syria, and the border of Judaea ran between it and Caesarea. The N. border of Samaria is set by Josephus at Ginae, modern Jenin; it ran therefore along or near the S. edge of Esdraelon. The S. border Josephus fixes at the Akrabatta toparchy, and again at Anuath or Borkeos, perhaps the modern Burkit; it ran therefore along the natural line of the W. Ishar. Jewish pilgrims from Galilee to Judaea had thus to traverse some 23 miles of Samaria.
Tetrarchy of Herod Antipas; Galilee and Peraea. - For the limits of Galilee and its divisions, see H.G.H.L., ch. xx., 415 ff., and art. "Ptolemais," § 9, E. Bib., col. 3971 f., and Oehler, Z.D.P.V., xxviii., 49 ff. The most southerly town was Xaloth (modern Iksal), on N. edge of the "Plain" (III Wars, iii. 1), which may have been divided between Samaria and Galilee, with the territory of Scythopolis running well up into it from the E. The border ran W., S. of Iafa, modern Yafa, a Galilean village (Jos., Vita, 45), and Simonias, "on the confines of Galilee" (id., 24), the modern Semuniyeh, but N. of Gabaa, which belonged to Carmel (III Wars, iii. 1), hardly therefore Jebata, but possibly Sheikh Abreik (Oehler), and Besara "in the confines of Ptolemais" (Vit., 24), now unknown. The W. border of S. Galilee ran N. to the W. of Chaboulon (HI Wars, iii. 1) or Cabul and Gabara (1 Wars, xviii. 9), modern Kabra, E. from Ptolemais, and so along or near the edge of the hills, about 60 stadia E. of Ptolemais (II Wars, x. 2). The W. border of Upper Galilee is not so certain. It must have run much farther E. than that of Lower Galilee: a natural line would be the watershed from the E. of Rameh, by Beit Jenn, then across the Jebel Jermak and by the Jebel Adathir, W. of Sasa. It is also only on the E. of this line that we find Jewish towns of Upper Galilee mentioned by Josephus, Gischala (el Jish) and Meroth (the border town according to III Wars, iii. 1), if that be the modern Meiron with many Jewish remains. But Meiron is too far E. to be the border town. Kefr Birim, farther N. on the watershed, has the remains of two synagogues, very like those of Meiron (P.E.F. Mem., i. 252 ff.), and at it, according to Renan (Mission en Phenicie, р. 772). The Jewish or Galilean region commences in the most unmistakable manner. Perhaps, then, the w. border of Galilee (though the date of these Jewish remains is doubtful) ran in the first Christian century as far N. as Kefr Birim or even Yarun. The N. border was S. of Kadesh, which was Tyrian. Baka is set on the N. border, but is unknown (III Wars, iii. 1). The Е. border was the Jordan. Whether the jurisdiction of Antipas covered the E. coast of the Lake of Galilee (as the name Galilee did later) is uncertain and improbable. Philip's jurisdiction, we know, came S. to at least Bethsaida-Julias, and Hippos and probably Gamala were Greek.
Galilee was separated by an uncertain size of Decapolitan territory from Peraea. Josephus extends Реraeа а from Pella to Mаchaerus, just S. of the W. Zerka Ma’in (probably the frontier was the W. Walеh or W. Mojib, the Arnon), and from Philadelphia (i.e. the territory of that town) to the Jordan.
Antipas founded Tiberias between 20 and 26 A.D., and probably between 20 and 22 (H.G.H.L., 448, n. 2) made it his capital in place of Sеpphoris. In Pеraeа he fortified Betharamptha, the O.T. Beth-haram or -haran, and called it Julias, after the wife of Augustus. Euseb. and Jer. call it Livias, the Empress' own name being Livia. It is the modern Tell er-Ram. Antipas was deposed by Caligula in 39 A.D., and his tetrarchy given to Agrippa.
Tetrarchy of Philip: Trachonitis, &c. - Philip, В.C. 4 - A.D. 34, received Paneas, Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Batаnaеa, and Auranitis, with a certain part of the domain of Zenodorus about Innanw, i.e. the Ina of Ptolemy, (modern Hine), just S. of Kefr Hawar. This tetrarchy extended from Mt. Hermon and the sources of Jordan to the Lake of Tiberias, and from an unknown village Arpha to Bethsaida-Julias and the Jordan. The S. border ran S. of Hebran and Kanatha, but N. of Bosra and Salkhad, which were Nabataean (H.G.H.L., pp. 540 f., 617, 619, 621). The domain of Zenodorus lay between Trachon and Galilee, and contained Ulatha and Paneas; on the map it is extended N. so as to include Ana. Gaulanitis lay to the S. of Zenodonis' domain along the Jordan and the lake, practically the modern Jaulan less the territory of Hippos. Auranitis was the great plain, Hauran, E. of Gaulanitis, with an extension S. Batanaeа was an elastic name, sometimes stretched over all the region N. of the Yarmuk, sometimes limited to the toparchy called Batanaea (bounded by the Trachonitis) probably the modern en-Nukra between the Leja to N.E. and Gilead to the S.W. Trachonitis was the country of the two Trachons (Strabo, xvi. 2, 20), the great stretches of lava to the S.Е. and S. of Damascus, of which the more southerly was the Trachon. Properly Trachonitis consisted of this plus the territory to the N.W. towards the domains of Zenodorus. Philo applies the name to the whole tetrarchy of Philip (Legat. ad Cajum, 41).
Luke iii. 1 describes Philip's tetrarchy as thz Itonraiaz Tracwnitidoz cwraz, which (since there is no known instance of the use of ‘Itonraia as a noun before the fourth century) should be translated the regiоn Ituraean and of Тraсhоnitis. For details see H.G.H.L., ch, xxv. pp. 540-547, 554. Philip built two towns. Paneas (H.G.H.L., 474) he embellished, giving it the name of Caesаrеа, to which common use added his own C. Philippi, to distinguish it from his father's on the sea coast. Bethsaida he also rebuilt, calling it Julias after the daughter of Augustus. Philip died in 34 в.с., and his tetrarchy was incorporated in the province of Syria. In 37, Caligula gave it to Agrippa.
Abilene, the tetrarchy of Lysanias (Luke iii. 1) lay N. of Philip's, on the upper Abana (modern Barada), and in the Beka` was Chalcis.
Damasсus had been a semi-independent city under Syria, and a member of the Decapolis, with a large territory (G. A. Smith, "Damascus," E. Bib., col. 992), but before Paul's visit to it (Acts ix.) it was under an ethnarch of Aretas (Hаrith), the Nabataean king; in Nero's reign, 53-68, it was again under Rome.
The Decapolitan Region has already been described in connection with Map 40.
ARABIA was the name applied in N.T. times to everything E. and S. of the tetrarchies of Philip and Antipas and the Decapolitan territories, but sometimes in common use may have included the E. portions of these. The personal names of the Ituraeans were Syrian; Vibius Sequester (ed. Hesse, Iii. 155) calls them Syrian, but they were sometimes called Arabs (Dion Cassius, lix. 12). The Nabаtaеаns, though speaking Aramaean, were Arabs (Appian, xii. 106, and frequently in Josephus). Their kingdom, in existence since 100 в.c., had its capital at Petra. Two inscriptions by their strategi on the Arnon (C.I.S., par. ii., tom. i. 183 ff.) are from about this time. They commanded the trade routes from Damascus to the Red Sea, and as far into Arabia as at least Hejra or Mеda'in Sâlih (el-Heir). Their trade passed to the Mediterranean through Gaza, Anthedon, and Pomponius Mela (i. 10) adds Azotus. Its range to the W. is indicated by three Nabataеаn inscriptions at Rome and Puteoli from the first decade of the Christian era (C.I.S., p. ii., t. i. 157-159).
On the names SYRIA, Coele-SYRIA, Phoenicia, and PALESTINE see notes on previous maps.
Apart from place-names in the quotations from the U.T., the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles give some sixty- four geographical and topographical terms within Palestine, Phoenicia, Syria, and Arabia. These, where their sites are known, are marked on the map. For the others, the student is referred to Hastings' D.B., the E. Bib., Sanday's Sacred Sites of the Gospels, and G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, ii, chap. xx.
44. PALESTINE UNDER AGRIPPA I. 37-44 А.D.
Authorities - Ancient: Acts xii., 2 Cor. xi. 32; Josephus, II Wars, ix-xi.; XVIII Antt., v.-viii.; XIX Antt., iv.-ix.: Dion Cassius, lix. 12; Tacitus, Ann. xii. 23; Coins and Inscriptions as in previous notes. Modern: Marquardt, Röm. Stаatsverwаltung, i. (1873), 252; Schürеr, Gesch., §§ 18, 23; G. A. Smith, H.G.H.L., 538-547, 619-621, Jerusalem, i. 427; Shlatter, Gesch. Isr., &c., 203-206.
In 37 and 40 A.D., Herod Agrippa I, son of Aristobulus son of Herod the Great, received from Caligula the tetrarchies of Philip, Lysanias and Herod Antipas, with the title of king; and in 42, from Claudius, Judaea and Samaria, which he held till his death in 44, their administration by Procurators being interrupted for three years. His domains were thus virtually those of his grandfather. On the coast he held from Raphia, if not Rhinokoroura, to Caesarea, except Askalon, while Joppa had possibly a free constitution. Dora he did not hold. In Ptolemais Claudius settled a colony of veterans. In Judaea and Samaria things were pretty much as under Herod (Shechem, e.g., did not become Neapolis till under the Flavian dynasty). Scythopolis was independent, and so probably the rest of the Decapolis, including Hippos and Gadara which had been Herod's. Philadelphia, with Philadelphine, was independent in 44. Heshbon - Esebon or Esbus - with its district Sabonitis, seems also to have been outside Peræa. Probably Medaba and Libba were again Nabatæan. In Hauran the S. frontier between Agrippa and the Nabatæans ran between Hebran and Bosra (H.G.H.L., 621). On the E. his power reached Nela (Mushennef), where an inscription of his has been found. Compassing Jebel Hauran on the E., the Nabataeans extended to Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 32). Probably Agrippa's power was continuous from Galilee to Abilene, formerly the tetrarchy of Lysanias, yet Mt. Hermon may have been still held by Ituraeans. Herod, Agrippa's brother, held Chalcis with the title of king till his death in 48. To the N. was the Ituraean kingdom of Soеmus.
45. PALESTINE UNDER ROMAN PROCURATORS . 6-41 and 44-70 A.D.
AUTHORITIES - Ancient: Matthew xiii. 15-22, xxvii., xxviii. ; Mark xii. 13-17, xv. ; Luke iii. 1, xx. 20-25, xxiii.; John xviii. 28, xix.; Acts xxi.-xxvi.; Josephus, ш and iv Wars; relevant passages in Tacitus; Coins and Inscriptions as iii previous notes. Modern: Marquardt, Schurer, Smith, Schlatter as on Map 44.
In 6 A.D., Judaea was taken from Archelaus, and placed by the Emperor in charge of a Procurator. The оШiсial designation of this olГcer was Epitropos, for which the N.T. has, Hegemon, Governor; but Josephus, Eparchos=Praefectus. The Procurators were under the Legate of the Province of Syria. The succession of them was interrupted from 42 to 44 A.D., during which years Judaea was under Herod Agrippa I (see Map 44). On his death their administration was resumed. This map illustrates the political state of Palestine in their second period, 44-70 A.D. For their first period, 6-41 A.D., see Map 43. Under the Procurators the civil jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin was confined to Judaea proper, and did not include the right to inflict the capital penalty; but its religious authority extended to Jewish communities beyond, as we see from Acts ix. 1 f.
46. PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF AGRIPPA II. 48 -70 A.D.
Authorities - Ancient: Acts xxv., xxvi. ; Josephus, п Wars, xi. 6, xii. 1, f., xiii. 2; ХIx Antt. ix. 2, xx Antt. i. 3, v. 2, vii. 1, viii. 4; Coins and Inscriptions as in previous notes. Modern: As in previous notes.
IN 48 A.D., or possibly not till 50, Herod of Chalcis was succeeded by his nephew, Agrippa II, who in 53 resigned the kingdom of Chalcis and received the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias, with the territory of Varus in the Ituraean parts of Anti-Lebanon and later from Nero a part of Galilee, including Tiberias and Taricheae, with the city of Julias. The region under Roman Procurators is the same as indicated on Map 45; only that the parts of it coloured red are those which constituted the areas of the Jewish and Idumaean revolt against Rome.
47-48. PLANS OF JERUSALEM AT VARIOUS PERIODS
49-50 . PLAN OF MODERN JERUSALEМ
For these, see G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, &c., vols. i. and ii., and various authorities cited there.
51. ST. PAUL 'S TRAVELS
AцтнoкггIES.—Ancient : The Book of the Acts of the Apostles; Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, i. 15 Н ; and references in other of his Epistles ; cp. the ancient authorities cited for Maps 19, 42, 52. Modern: Sir W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, St. Paul the Traveller, etc., and other volumes, also art. "Roads and Travel in the N.T." in the extra volume of Hastings' D.B. ; J. Smith of Jordanhill, Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul (4th ed., 1880); Bp. Lightfoot, The Epistle to the Galatians (1865, 10th ed., 1880); J. Stalker, Life of Paul in Handbooks for Bible Classes (Edin., 1884) ; G. G. Findlay, art. "Paul the Apostle," in Hastings' D.B., vol. iii.; J. Moffatt, The Historical N.T. (Ellin., 1901) ; C. A. T. Skeel, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Camb., 1901).
THE four apostolic journeys of St. Paul were as follows: -
1. Acts xiii. 4-хiv. 26, from Antioch of Syria by Seleucia to Cyprus at Salamis, thence across the island to Paphos, thence by sea to Attalia for Perga in Pamphylia, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and back by Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, Perga, and Attalia, whence by sea to Seleucia and Antioch of Syria.
2. Acts xv. 36-xviii. 32, with Silas, from Antioch of Syria through Syria and Cilicia to Derbe and Lystra, "through the cities" (xvi. 4), the Phrygian region of Galatia, when, being forbidden to speak in Asia, he came over against Mysia, and having essayed Bithynia, and passing by Mysia, he descended to Troas ; thence by Samothrace to Neapolis, Philippi, Amphipolis, Apollonia, Thessalonica, Beroea, Athens, Cenchrea, and across to Ephesus; thence by sea to Caesarea of Palestine, Jerusalem, and Antioch in Syria-49-52 A.D. The red line of this journey in the Map is interrupted between Pisidia and the valley of the Rhyndacus, down which Paul probably came towards Troas, because during the interval his course is quite uncertain, and authorities greatly differ as to its probate direction, some taking him as far round as Ancyra in N. Galatia, others bringing him either directly or by Dorylaion, to the Rhyndacus.
З. Acts xviii. 22, xix. 1-xxi. 17 (2 Cor. ii. 12? etc.), from the Syrian Antioch, through the Galatian region and Phrygia and the upper coasts to Ephesus, where he stayed for two years, thence (by land?) to Troas and across to Macedonia and those parts (? Achaia, Illyricum - see Moffatt) to Corinth; thence back through Macedonia and over the sea by Troas, Mitylene, Chios, and Samos to Trogyllium, Miletus (whence he sent to Ephesus), Cos (or Coos), Rhodes, Patara, Tyre, Ptolemais, Caеsareа, Jerusalem - 52-56 A.D.
4. Acts xxvii., xxviii., voyage in a ship of Adramyttium from Caesarеa, Sidon, and under Cyprus over the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia to Myra of Lycia ; thence in a ship of Alexandria till they came over against Cnidus, and thence under Crete past Salmone to the Fair Havens near Lasea ; thence in a tempest to the wreck of the ship off Melita; thence, after three months, in another ship of Alexandria, by Syracuse and Rhegium to Puteoli; and so by Appii Forum and the Three Taverns to Rome.
52. ASIA MINOR - OROGRAPHICAL
SHOWING POSITIONS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES
Authorities. - Ancient: The Book of the Acts of the Apostles; The Apocalypse (Revelation) of St. John the Divine, chs. i. - iii. Modern: the works cited for Map 51, and in addition Sir W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire (Lond., 1893), Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia (tond., 1895-7), The Letters to the Seven Churches (Lond., 1905) ; for the natural features, see Ramsay's Hist. Geog. of Asia Minor (1890) and D. G. Hogarth's The Nearer East.
53. THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST UNDER TRAJAN. c. 110 A.D.
Authorities. - Ancient: In the N.T. the Acts and Epistles; Dion Cassius, lxviii.; Letters of the Younger Pliny; Roman Inscriptions of the period. Modern: Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. i.; Stuart Jones, The Roman Empire (in The Story of the Nations series) ; Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, Historical Commentary on Galatians (1895), section 15, and other works; Harnack, The Expansion of Christianity.
In addition to the regions coloured as representing the expansion of Christianity, it must be kept in mind that Christian communities already existed at such centres as Athens, Corinth, and Rome, and that there was a Christian Diaspora throughout many other regions (ср. 1 Peter i.) ; but to colour these as Christian would give an exaggerated idea of the extension of the new faith.
53а. THE CHURCH AND EMPIRE IN THE EAST UNDER CONSTANTINE.
Authorines. - Ancient: The Ecclesiastical Historians who report on this period; the Notitia Dignitatum in
Partibus Orientis (ed. Böcking, Fasciculi i. and ii.). Modern: Gibbon, chs. xv.-xviii.; Stuart
Jones, The Roman Empire (in the Story of the Nations), and the other works mentioned in the note to
the previous map.
The Christians suffered little persecution from the Imperial authorities between the time of Marcus Aurelius and that of Decius, who in the middle of the third century cruelly oppressed them. When his persecution ceased in 260 A.D., the Church, fortified and fertilised by her period of martyrdom, began a time of rapid expansion. The conversion of Armenia took place towards the end of the third century. In 303 persecution broke out again under Diocletian, but in 311 Constantine adopted Christianity, and in 325 presided at the Council of Nicaea. It was, however, under Theodosius (378-395) that orthodox Christianity triumphed and the final divorce took place between the Empire and Paganism.
54. PALESTINE IN THE FOURTH CENTURY ACCORDING TO EUSEEIUS AND JEROME.
Authorines. - Ancient: Eusebius and Jerome, their Onomastika - (1) Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarеа, ПFрC тiw
то-r iк z' ôvоцâ-гwv тcc~v w т4j ОE z yрaфй, c. 330 A.D.; (2) Hieronymus (Jerome), De Situ et Nominibus
Locorum Divinoe Scripturoe, c. 390 A.D. The Greek versions of the O.T. assist both in determining some sites, and in fixing the spelling of many of the names given by Eusebius, who used probably Origen's Hexaplar and Josephus. The mosaic map of Mâdaba is largely based on Eusebius, and affords material for the determination of sites and lines of communication. Procopius of Gaza, On Justinian's Buildings, has also been used by Klostermann (see below). Modern: TheOnomastika of Eusebius and Jerome are printed in parallel pages in F. Larsow and G. Parthey'sEus. Onom. cum Latina Hieron. interpretatione (Berlin, 1862), and are given separately with other materials in P. de Lagarde's Onomastica Sacra (alterum edita) (Gött., 1887); E. Klostermann, Das Onom. der Вibl. Ortsnamеn in vol. iii, of Eusebius' works (Leipzig, 1904) ; С. R. Conder, "The Onom." in P.E.F.Q., 1896, pp. 229-245; P. Thomsen, Раlaestina nach dem Onom. des Eus." inZ.D.P. V., 1903, pp. 97-188, with map (cp. W. Kubitschek, Jahresheftе des östеrreich. аrchäоl. Inst. (1905); A. Schulten,Die Мosaikkarte von Mаdaba, &с., with reproductions (Berlin, 1900) ; W. Kubitschek, Die Mоsaikkarte Palästinas (reprint from the Mitth. (d. k. k. Gеоgr. Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1900).
The civitates marked on the map are those called by Eusebius poleiz, or in fewer cases policnai; the other sites are those he describes kwmai, villages, Jer. vici. Eusebius and Jerome not infrequently differ in their locations of sites; the Map follows in each case the more probable alternative, with modifications suggested by Biblical and other evidence. Jerome, knowing the land better, is often the more correct (e.g. in the distance of Chorazin from Capernaum). The Map follows mainly Jerome's spelling of the names (e.g. Sichar for Eusebius' Suchar, Modeim for Eusebius' Modeeim). Some emendations of the spelling suggested by Klostermann and Thomsen have been adopted. Some duplicate names have been omitted for want of space. Thus Jerome's Stagnum Gennezar or Genesareth= Гevr~о-aрiт of Eusebius, is also called Stagnum Tyberiadis='лwi Т' Ерtоs, and the Mare Salinarum sive Mortuur= Ос ао о-а &?wкr~, Й ксii~оvцÉv;j vEKp& of Eusebius, is also called Aare Asphalti id est bituminis='Aо-фа'тîтcs. (On this Map J has to be pronounced I, C corresponds to the Greek K, and ch to X). Eusebius calls the whole land from the border of Phoenicia, (sweeping by Carmel inland and then N. to Dan) to the border of Egypt э Па ' шо-тiv~j (Jer. Palaestina, extending it even to Ailath on the Gulf of `Akabah). But both often use Judaeа of the land from Dan to Beersheba, sometimes dividing it from Arabia on the E. by the Lake of Tiberias and the Jordan, and again giving the frontier as fear E. as Arbela, while the S. border is fixed at Arad. The larger divisions marked on the map - on the E. Golan, Batanaia, Decapolis, Peraea, Araboth Joab, Arnonas ; on the W. Galilee, Saron, Acrabittene, Thamnitica, Sephela, Daroma - are given both by Eusebius and Jerome; the latter alone adds Guphnensis. They are probably all popular names of the time - partly geographical, partly reflections of official political divisions in earlier centuries. Galilaeа should come farther S. than on the Map—as far as Nazareth and Esdraelon. Idumaeа (= the O.T. Edom, to the E. of the `Arabah, and called in Eusebius' time Gebalene), Ausitis, the Trachon and Trachonitis, Damascene and Ituraea, all lie beyond the limits of our Map. Eusebius calls Esdraelon "The Great Plain" (so Josephus, but including the Jordan valley), sometimes with the addition “of Legio" or "beside Mt. Thabor." The Jordan valley, from Lebanon to the S. of the Dead Sea, lie calls the Аulon.
Thornsen's map gives a network of roads and lines of communication deduced from the data of Eusebius. Kubitschek's strictus on this are hardly successful.
55. PALESTINE AFTER THE PEUTINGER TABLES
Auтнoriтiеs. - The two earliest editions known to the editor are: Fragmenta Tabuloe аntiquoe in quis aliquot per Rom. provincias itinera, ex Pеutingerоrum bibliotheca, ed. etc. M. Vеlsеro Matei F. Aug. Vind. (Venetiis, apud Aldum, 1591), and Tabula itineraria ex illustri Peutingеrоrum bibliotheca quoe Augustoe Vindeliorum est (Antwerp, Offic. Plantiniana, 1598). The present reproduction, that of Segment ix., is from the Tabula Mititaris Itineraria, Theodosiana et Peutingeriana nuncupata (engraved from the Vindobensian edition of 1753), by Podocatharus Christianopulus (1793). The two most useful editions are those of Konrad Mannert, Tab. Itineraria Peutingeriana, with Introduction (Leipzig, 1824), and of Ernest Desjardins, La Table de Peutinger, with text (Paris, 1809 onwards). See further, Konrad Miller, Die Weltkarte des Castorius (Ravensburg, 1887-8); the last ed. of Th. Menke's Bibel-Atlas (Gotha) ; H. F. Tozer, A History of Ancient Geography (Camb., 1897), pp. 310-312 ; R. Röhricht in Z.D.P.V., xxi. (1898), p. 85; P. Thomsen, "Untersuchungen zur älteren Palästinaliteratur," in Z.D.V.P., xxix. (1906), pp. 103, 117; C. A. J. Skeet, Travel in the First Century after Christ (Camb., 1901), pp. 23 Н.
This Table, now in the Imperial Library of Vienna, owes its present name to Conrad Peutinger of Augsburg, to whom it was bequeathed by Conrad Celtes, who discovered it in a monastery in 1507. It is the copy by a monk of Colmar in the thirteenth century of an earlier map of the eleventh or twelfth century, the original of which was probably compiled in the fourth century (about 366, says Röhricht) from earlier Roman Itineraria based on materials which Agrippa (d. 12 B.c.) seems to have been the first to collect. This history explains the presence in it of the data of many periods. In the main it is a military map of the Roman Émpire, in the third and fourth centuries, the only surviving specimen of the Imperial itineraria pieta." (In his paper, cited above in the Z.D.P.V., xxix., P. Thomsen gives a comparative table of the Palestine data in Ptolemy, the Tab. Pent., the Antoriine Itinerary, and the anonymous map of Ravenna, and also a map of Palestine after the data of Ptolemy and the Notitia Dignitarum, which it will be useful for the student to compare with the details of the Peutinger Table.) But it contains some details from Christian and Jewish sources.
The Tabula, 21 feet long by over a foot broad, extends from the S.E. coast of Britain to the limit of Alexander the Great's march, and even to the mouth of the Ganges and Taprobane (Ceylon). As the compiler's aim was to give the lines of roads throughout the Empire, with their stations and the distances between these, the shapes of lands and seas are even more distorted than upon the maps of modern American railway time-tables. The natural features (except rivers) are seldom traced; the smaller towns are indicated by two or three houses, but a great one by a circuit of walls with towers; and each watering-place by a tank surrounded by a bath-house. The Table is divided into xii. Segments, of which only the sixth, covering part of Asia Minor, with Rhodes and part of Cyprus. Palestine from Damascus and Abila, the Desert of the Wanderings, and the Delta, is reproduced here. Northern Syria (with Antioch) and the rest of Cyprus appear on Segment x.
In the Note under the Title, for third century read fourth century.
56 . PALESTINE AFTER MARINUS SANUTUS, 1611
Authorities. - Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos sive Orientalis Historia, Tomus Secundus: Liber Secretorum Fidelium Crucis auctor Marinus Sanutos (or Sanuto) dictus Torsellus de civitate Rivoalti ... Patricius Venetus nunc primum cum libello ejusdem argumenti sine auctoris nomine ex M.S.S. veteribus editus (Hanоviae, MDCXI), with Sanuto's Map of the World, Paraplus, or Map of the coasts of the Levant and the Sinai Peninsula, Map of Palestine, and Plans of Jerusalem and Acco(n); Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, xxix. (1896), reproduces the Palestine Map, the Paraplus, and the Plan of Jerusalem; R. Röhricht, "Marino sanudo, sen., als Kartograph Раh stineаs," in Z.D.P.V., xxi. (1898), pp. 84-126, with reproductions of all the maps and plans.
Marino Sanuто, sen., a Patrician of Venice, visited the Holy Land five times, but for the preparation of his volume and maps probably drew besides on the results of the geographer Pietro Visconte of Genoa, who published Atlases between 1311 and 1318 (Jomard, Les ilIоnuments de la Géographie, Paris, 1847, planche ix.). The importance of his work for us lies in this, that, as Röhricht says, it furnishes "den Niederschlag des zeitgemaessen kartographischen Wissens und Könnens." There are two codices in England, one in the British Museum, No. 27,376, and one at Oxford in the Bodleian, Cod. Tanneri, 196. For other codices see Röhricht, who states many of the differences of detail among them. In Bongar's edition of Sanuto's work, Liber Secretorum Fidelium Crucis, the portions relevant to the Map of Palestine, which is here reproduced, are contained on pp. 243-262, and entitled "Quartadecima Pars continet Locorum dispositionem, maxime Terrae Sаnctae, habens capitula xii."
We are ignorant of the principles or the data on which the map is divided into squares - said to be the earliest of its kind to be so. It extends from (Damascus, the Lebanons, and) Dan to Beersheba and the S. end of the Dead Sea, and from the Coast to the Arabian Desert. For further details of the coast and for the Peninsula of Sinai, sanuto's other map, the Paraplus, should be consulted.
57. SYRIA AND PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES AND THE LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM
Auтноriтies - Contemporary (and nearly so): Recueil des Historiens des Croisades (Paris, 1841 to the present date), containing both the Western and Eastern historians, of whom the following are the most valuable geographically: William of Tyre (1095-1184),Hest. Rerum in partibus transmarinis Gestаrum, &с.; Geoffrey de Vinsauf,Itinerarium Regis Anglоrum Richardii, &c. (1187-1193); Bernard le Тrésoriеr, De Аcquisitione Terrae Sanctae; also in Bongars,Gesta Dei per Francos (1611) ; Vinsauf, Englished in Bohn's Chrоnicles of the Crusades, and inPalestine Pilgrims Text Society's Library; Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani MXCVII-MCCXCI, ed. by R. Röhricht (Innspruсk, 1893), with an additаmentum (1904); Ambroise, L'Estoire de la Guerre Sainte, a rhyming chronicle of the Third Crusade, with translation, glossary, and index of names (rich in geographical material), by Gaston Paris (Paris, 1897); Bohaeddin, Life of Saladin, with excerpts from the history of Abulfeda, edited, with a Latin translation, by A. Schultens (Leyden, 1732); Benjamin of Tudela's Travels, 1160-1173, Englished in Bohn's Early Travels in Palestine (1848), text and English by M. N. Adler in J.Q.R., 1905-6. Modern: Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chs. lviii., lix. (in Bury's ed., with a map); Maundrell, Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem in 1697 (in Bohn's Early Travels); E. Ray,Les Colonies Franques de Syrie, au xii et xiii Siécles (Paris, 1883); W. Heyd, Histoire d. Commerce d. Levant au Moyen Age (Leipzig, 1885-86), 2 vols., and Les Consulats établis en Terre Sainte au Moyen Age, etc. (traduit par M. Furcy Raynaud); Prutz, Die Besitzungen des deutschen Ordens im Heiligen Lande (Leipzig, 1877), and " Die Besitz. des Johanniter Ordens in Pа1aest. u. Syrien," in Z.D.P.V., 1881, pp. 157 ff.; Röhricht, Gesch. des Königreichs Jerusalem, 1100-1291 (Innspruсk, 1898) ; W. B. Stevenson, The Crusades in the East (Cambridge, 1907), with maps.
This Map presents the political divisions in Syria and Palestine during the period of the Crusades (10961291) - which includes that of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1097-1185) - with subdivisions, and the names of towns, castles, casales, and natural features. It is impossible, of course, to include the names of all the casales and estates into which Palestine was parcelled by the Crusaders, but the Map gives the most important, whether with regard to the history of the time or the modern task of identifying the ancient sites. The names are spelt as in the original documents given above (with some requisite emendations). Appended is a chronological table. It must be kept in mind that different authorities number the Crusades differently. "Together they form a continuous stream for the greater part of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The numbering of a selected few obscures this fact. Only the First Crusade is rightly defined by the numeral attached. Similar expressions applied to the other Crusades should seldom or never be used" (Stevenson, p. 3). This is true at least beyond the third. Thereafter the numbers differ, as indicated by the brackets in the following:
I. 1096-99, Peter the Hermit, Godfrey; 1098, Antioch taken; 1099, Kingdom of Jerusalem founded; 1100, Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem; 1101, Stephen of Blois, the Wolf of Bavaria, &c., reached the Halys River, and their hosts are scattered there; 1101, Baldwin takes Tripoli; 1118, Baldwin II, Order of Temple founded about this time; 1124, Tyre surrenders; 1131, Fulke of Anjou king; 1143, Baldwin III; 1146, Nureddin conquers Damascus and Edessa.
II. 1147-49, Bernard, Louis VII, and Emperor Konrad III, Crusaders advance to Damascus; 1153, Baldwin III takes Acre, Askalon surrenders; 1162, Amalrich king; 1171, Saladin overthrows the Fatimite Khalifate of Egypt; 1173, Baldwin IV; 1183, Saladin conquers the most of Syria, but neither Tyre nor Tripoli; 1185, Baldwin V ; 1186, Guy of Lusignan; 1187, Saladin takes Jerusalem, after defeating Christians at IIattin.
III. 1189-92, Gregory VIII, Friedrich Barbarossa, Richard Lionheart, Philip Augustus of France; 1189-91, Siege and capture of Acre; 1193, Saladin leaves the coast from Jafa to Acre to the Christians, Death of Saladin.
IV. 1197-98, Innocent III, Heinrich VI, Conrad of Mainz.
V. (IV according to some). 1202-4, Venice under the Doge Dandolo, the Latin occupation of Constantinople; 1212, the Children's Crusade.
(V. according to some). 1218-21, Andrew of Hungary and Austrians; fruitless expeditions from Acre to the sources of Jordan and Mt. Tabor; expedition to Egypt; Damietta taken and surrendered.
VI. 1228-29, Friedrich II obtains by treaty the cession of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Tibnin and Sidon to the Christians.
VII. 1239-41, Richard of Cornwall; 1244, the Charesmians devastate Palestine.
VIII. (VI according to some). 1248-54, St. Louis of France, expedition to Egypt, Damietta taken and surrendered.
IX. (VII according to some). Louis IХ invades Tunis, English fleet under Edward I delivers Acre from siege, and returns.
1271, Sultan Baibars takes Antioch, Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights of St. John (who had held it since 1180), and afterwards Montfort from the German Knights, 1287 Margat, and 1289 Tripoli, Sidon, Tyre, Jaffa, &c. ; 1291, his son, Sultan El-Ashraf, takes Acre and then `Athlit, the last Christian stronghold held by the Templars.
58. EUROPE TO ILLUSTRATE THE CRUSADES
Authorities. - See Notes to previous Map.
The different lines mark the advance of the First and Third Crusades.
58а. EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY
Authorities. - See Notes to Maps 53 and 53a.
59. PRESENT POLITICAL DIVISIONS
AUTHORITY: The Salnaтé or Turkish Government "Blue-Book" - see the editions of recent years.
REPORTS AND NOTICES. - G. Hülschеr, "Die administrative Einteilung des heutigen Syriens," iii. u. N.D.P.V., 1907, pp. 49-57, with G. Dalman's notes on this, Id., 1909, p. 14 ; Br. Blau, "Die autonome Provinz Libanon," in Altneuland, 1907, pp. 266-268 (not seen). On von Oppenheim see below.
MAPS : A. Durand, Empire Ottoman: Turquie d'Europe, T. d'Asie, Nouvelle Carte administrative écоn. et consulaire (Paris, 1908-not seen); R. Huber, Empire Ottoman, Division Administrative, after the Turkish Salnamé of 1899 (Constantinople, 1905-not seen) ; Carte de la Province du Liban (Cairo, 1905). On von Oppenheim see below. .
THE Ottoman Government of Syria comprises two V2layets or WZlayets (each under a Wlу) :-Beyrout and Damascus, each divided into Sanjaks or Mutasarrifliks (each under a Mutesarrif) and two additional sanjaks or Mutasarrifliks:-Jerusalem and the Lebanon, both directly responsible to the Ottoman Ministry of the Interior. A Sanjak is divided into Kadas (districts, or circuits or arrondissements) each under a Kaimmakan, and the Kaads again into nahiyahs (cantons or communes) under a Mudir.
I. The five ,Sanjaks or Mutasarrifliks of the Vilayet of Beyrout are those of
1. Beyrout, covering the Kadâs of Sidon, Tyre, and Merj `Ауun.
2. 'Akka (Acre), covering the Kadas of Haifa, Tiberias, Safed, and Nazareth (but according to M. u. N.D.P.V., 1907, pp. 23 f., this has since 1906 been attached to the Sanjak of Jerusalem); as well as the nâhiyahs of Sâhil, Sha`ûr, and Shefâ `Amr.
3. Tarabulus (Tripoli), of which only part lies within this map.
4. Ladakiyeh (Latakiah); which lies beyond the map.
5. Belka (so called because formerly it included the region called The Belka, E. of Jordan: see H.G.H.L., 535 f.), or properly Nablus (with its capital at Nablus, covering the nаhiуahs first and second Jemma`in, and Jemmâ`in, and the Kadâs Jenin and Beni Sa`b.
II. The four Sanjaks of the Vilayet of esh-Sham (Syria or Damascus) are those of:
1. Sham Sherif (Damascus), covering the Kadas of Ba’albek, Bika el-'Aziz (capital Mu`allakа), Wady el `Ajam (capital Katanâ), Duma, Nebk, Hasbeiуa, Rasheiya, Zebdanÿ, and el-Kuneitra.
2. Hamah (Hamah ?), only partly in the map.
3. Hauran (capital formerly at Sheikh Sa`ad, now elsewhere), covering the nahiyahs of Ghabâghib and Jâsim, and the Kаdas of 'Ajlûn (capital Irbid), Suweideh (or Suеidâ), Busr elHariri (on S. border of the Leja'), ed-Dera`ah, Salkhad, and `Ahire.
4. Kerak, with the nahiyahs Khanzireh and Dibân; and the Kadas, es-Salt, and et-Tafileh, and Ma`an. On the map es-Salt is reckoned to Hauran, but the change has been made recently. Dalman reports the addition of the nahiyahs of esh-Shobak and el-`Akabah (M. u. N .D.V.P., 1909, 14).
III. The Sanjak of Jerusalem (Arab. Kuds Sherif) consists of the nahiyаhs Вeit-Lahm (Bethlehem) Râmаllah, Safâ, and `Abwain, and the kаdas Yafâ (Joppa), Ghazzeh (Gaza), Khalil (Hebron), Bir Seba` (Beersheba); and to these the Kadа of Nazareth appears to have been added (see above). Dalman (loc. cit.) reports that the kаda of Bir es-Seba` has been changed into a Sanjak or Mutasarriflik Мu`äwinliyеh.
IV. The Sanjak of Lebanon consists of the Kаdаs Shuf, Metn, Kesrwân, Batrun, Jezzîn, Kûra, Zahlеh, and what was formerly the n ahiуаh of Deir el-Kamr,directly under the Mutesarrif, but appears now to be a Kadа. The town and environs of Beyrout do not belong to the Sanjak of Lebanon, but are in the vilayet of Beyrout. The government of the Sanjak is based on the "Reglement Organique du Liban," constituted by the Sublimе Porte, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Austria, and Russia in 1861. The Mutesarrif must be a Christian, and has the rank of a Vizier with the title of Pasha. For further details see von Oppenheim, Von Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, i. 32 fl:, with a map, "Die Verwaltungs-Eintheilung des autonomen Bezirks des Lebanon, 1898."
60. CHRISTIAN MISSIONS
THE data for this map have been obtained from missionary reports of the different denominations, and by the Editor on successive journeys through the country. See also J. Richter, Mission und Evangelisation 2m Orient, the 2nd vol. of theAllgemeine, Evangelische Missionsgeschichte (Gütersloh, 1908); W. A. Essery and J. H. Thomson, The Ascending Cross: some Results of Missions in Bible Lands (London: Religious Tract Society, 1905); A. Forder, Ventures among the Arabs in Desert, Tent, and Town (1905); H. A. Krose, Katholische Missionsstatistik (Freiburg i. Br., 1908).
EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS IN THE FOREGOING LETTERPRESS
А.T. = (das) Alte Testament.
E.В. and Enc. Вibl.=Еncyctopaedia Вiblicа, ed. by T. K. Cheyne, D.D., and J. Sutherland Black, LLD., (London, 1899-1903).
H.G.H.L. = Historical Geography of the Holy Land, by George Adam Smith (London, 1st ed. 1894; 4th ed. 1897).
Hastings, D.B. =A Dictionary of the Bible, ed. by James Hastings, D.D., vols. i.—iv. (Edin., 1898-1902); with Еxtra Volume (1904).
J.Q.R. =Jewish Quarterly Review (London).
Josephus, Antt. =Flavii Josephi Antiquitatum Judaicarum Libri xx., ed. Benedictus Niese (Berlin, 1887-90). Josephus, Wars. =Flavii Josephi De Bello Judaicо Libri vii., ed. as above (Berlin, 1894).
M. u. N.D.P.V. =Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des Deutschen Palästina - Vereins (Leipzig).
P.E.F. Mem. =The Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, ed. for the Palestine Exploration Fund, 3 vols.
(London, 1881-83); Jerusalem, 1 vol. ('84); Eastern Palestine, 1 vol. ('89). See further Letterpress
to Maps 15-30.
P.E.F.Q. =Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (London).
Pliny, H.N. =Historia Naturalis. See further, Letterpress to Map 9.
Rev. Bibl . =Revue Biblique Internationale publiée par l'École Pratique d'Études Bibliques, étaie au couvent Dominicain St. Étienne t Jérusalem (Paris and Rome).
Z. D. V .P. = Zeitschrift des Deutschen Pаlästina-Vereins (Leipzig).